OAT Practice: Biology

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Q1: Bryophyta (mosses)
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Terms in this set (116)
Q3: Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG)Hormone secreted by the embryo that functions to maintain the corpus luteum.EstrogenProduced by the ovary in females, initiates and maintains female sex characteristics and functions in the development of the uterine lining in preparation for pregnancy.ProgesteroneFunctions in the development of the uterine lining in preparation for pregnancy along with estrogen.AndrogensProduced by testis in males and function to initiate and maintain male sex characteristics and support spermatogenesis.InsulinProduced by the pancreas and lowers blood sugar levels.Q4: Active TransportMolecules are moved through the cell membrane against their concentration gradient with the help of membrane proteins. Since they are moving against the concentration gradient, ENERGY IS REQUIRED.Facilitated DiffusionMolecules are moved through the cell membrane along their concentration gradient with the help of membrane proteins. Since they are moving with the gradient, NO ENERGY IS REQUIRED.Q5: Which of the following is NOT a form of asexual reproduction: External FertilizationA form of sexual reproduction as it entails the fusion of female and male gametes.Binary FissionForm of asexual reproduction in which each daughter cell receives a single copy of the parent's chromosomes.BuddingForm of asexual reproduction in which a new individual grows out of the body of a pre-existing organism.ParthenogenesisForm of asexual reproduction in which an egg develops in the absence of fertilization.FragmentationOccurs when an organism's body breaks into several pieces, each of which grows into a full-fledged organism.Q6: A person with blood type AB...Can donate blood to people with blood type AB onlyBlood Type OMakes antibodies against type A surface markers and type B surface markers, and therefore cannot receive blood from types A, B, or AB.Blood Type ABDoes not make antibodies against either type A or type B markers and therefore can receive blood of type A, B, AB, or O.Blood Type AMakes antibodies against type B surface markers and therefore cannot receive blood of types AB or B.Blood Type BMakes antibodies against type A surface markers and therefore cannot receive blood of types AB or A.Q7: A peptide, targeted for secretion by the cell, has just been translated by the rough ER. What will happen to the peptide?The peptide will be modified and repackaged for exocytosis by the Golgi apparatus. (Post-translation modification)Q8: Which of the following is NOT produced by the anterior pituitary gland?Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)AntiDiuretic Hormone (ADH)Secreted by posterior pituitaryHuman Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG)Secreted by an embryo and maintains the supportive environment of the ovary.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)Secreted by the anterior pituitary gland, functions to stimulate the adrenal cortex to synthesize and release glucocorticoids.Prolactin (PRL)Secreted by the anterior pituitary gland, stimulates the production and secretion of milk.Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)Secreted by the anterior pituitary gland, stimulates the ovarian follicle in females and spermatogenesis in males.Luteinizing Hormone (LH)Secreted by the anterior pituitary gland, stimulates the corpus luteum and ovulation in females and interstitial cells in males.Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)Secreted by the anterior pituitary gland, stimulates the thyroid gland to absorb iodine and produce thyroid hormone.Growth Hormone (GH)Secreted by the anterior pituitary gland, helps conserve glucose by inhibiting glucose uptake by cells and stimulating the breakdown of fatty acids.Q9: The following is true regarding enzymes...1. Enzymes form temporary enzyme-substrate complexes 2. Enzymes decrease activation energy of a reaction. 3. Enzymes do not change the free energy of the products 4. Enzymes are affected by changes in temperature and pHQ10: Double fertilizationOccurs in mostly angiosperms, the union of two sperm cells with two cells of the embryo sac.Q11: Which of the following is the type of bacterial genetic variance characterized by integration of a foreign chromosome fragment (plasmid) into the host genome?TransformationTransductionBacterial genetic variance by a bacteriophage, not a plasmid.ConjugationBacterial form of mating that is formed via a cytoplasmic bridge.Binary FissionOccurs in bacteria but is not a source of variation since it involves making an exact copy.ParthenogenesisAn adult forming from an unfertilized egg and does not occur in bacteria.Q12: Which organelle(s) is thought to have originally been a free-living prokaryotic organism?Chloroplast and MitochondriaQ13: What is meant by an organism's "fitness," in an evolutionary sense?The organism survives to adulthood and reproduces.Q14: A biologist is dissecting a circulatory system that involves 5 aortic arches or "hearts" which pump blood through 2 main vessels, one dorsal and one ventral. Which organism could the biologist be studying?Earthworm.Circulatory System of HumansInvolves one four-chambered heart which pumps blood through arteries, capillaries, and veins.Circulatory System of GrasshoppersAn open system which bathes body tissues directly in a fluid called hemolymph.Circulatory System of FishInvolves one two-chambered heart and one circuit of blood flow.Circulatory System of SpongesExchange materials directly with the surrounding water.Q15: Two closely related species share the same habitat, but the sperm of one species cannot fertilize the egg of the other species, and vice versa. This is an example of...Gametic IsolationBehavioral IsolationA courtship ritual which is unique to a species, members of other species do not respond to the courtship ritual of a given species.Habitat IsolationTwo species cannot mate because they live in different habitats.Temporal IsolationTwo species that breed during different seasons, not allowing their gametes to meet.Mechanical IsolationTwo species which could not mate because they are anatomically incompatible.Q16: In the Krebs Cycle, high-energy electrons are passed to...NADH and FADH2Alcohol FermentationElectrons are passed to ethanolAerobic RespirationElectrons are passed to Oxygen in the final step, the ETC.PhotosynthesisElectrons are passed from photosystem II to Photosystem IQ17: In a large population, 81% of individuals displays the recessive trait. What is the frequency of the dominant allele?Answer: 0.10 p^2 + 2pq +q^2 = 1 q^2 = 81/100 q = 9/10 or 0.9 p = 1-q p = 1 - 0.9 = 0.10 or 10%Hardy-Weinberg Equationsp + q = 1 p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1Hardy-Weinberg Equations: pFrequency of the dominant alleleHardy-Weinberg Equations: qFrequency of the recessive alleleHardy-Weinberg Equations: p^2Frequency of the homozygous dominant genotypeHardy-Weinberg Equations: 2pqFrequency of the heterozygote genotypeHardy-Weinberg Equations: q^2Frequency of the homozygous recessive genotypeQ18: Crossing over of homologous chromosomes during meiosis is important because...It increases the genetic diversity of a population.Q19: The binding of a molecule other than the substrate to the active site of an enzyme is involved in...Competitive inhibitionNoncompetitive InhibitionA molecule binds to a part of the enzyme other than the active site, causing a conformational change in the enzyme. Unlike competitive, this inhibition can be overcome by increasing levels of the substrate.Feedback InhibitionThe presence of the end product of a metabolic pathway inhibits an enzyme which functions in an early step in the pathway.Q20: The digestive enzymes the pancreas produces are...Carboxypeptidase, chymotrypsin, lipase, and trypsin.Q21: Two unaffected parents have four children: 2 sons and 2 daughters. Three of these children have phenylketonuria, a genetic disease. This is an example of...Autosomal Recessive Inheritance. Predict -- unaffected parents having affected children is the hallmark of recessive inheritance. Predict -- the fact that male and female children are affected removes the possibility that it is X-linked because the father is not affected.Q22: In the human kidney...salt is actively transported from the loop of Henle to the medulla. Water flows passively along its osmotic gradient, from the loop of the Henle (low salt conc.) to the medulla (high salt conc.)Q23: When there is insufficient oxygen reaching human muscles, the muscle cells...convert pyruvate to lactate (lactic acid fermentation)Yeast FermentationConverts pyruvate into ethanol, one of the fundamentals in the production of wine.Q24: Which of the following choices contains components that are all found in prokaryotic cells?DNA, cytoplasm, cell membraneComponents of Prokaryotic CellsDNA, cytoplasm, ribosomes, and a cell membraneNon-components of Prokaryotic CellsMembrane bound organelles, mitochondria, chloroplast, or centrioles.Q25: A 0.154 M solution of NaCl is approximately isotonic with blood. What would happen to red blood cells if they were placed in a 0.05 M NaCl solution?Water would diffuse into the cells and they would swell. Water flows to the side of the membrane with the higher conc. of solute.Q26: A type of mutation in which one nitrogenous base is exchanged for another is called a...Base pair substitutionNondisjunction MutationMay occur during anaphase I or anaphase II of meiosis. In anaphase I, homologous chromosomes may fail to separate, while in anaphase II, sister chromatids may fail to separate. Results in gametes which are missing chromosomes or have extra copies of chromosomes.Insertion MutationA type of point mutation in which an extra nitrogenous base is inserted into a sequence of DNA.Deletion MutationA type of point mutation in which a nitrogenous base is removed from a sequence of DNA.Translocation MutationA part of one chromosome is moved into another chromosome.Q27: Cells which have the potential to develop into any type of tissue are called...TotipotentDetermine CellsCells that have become committed to a specific developmental fate.Gastrulation Cells1. Endoderm: Develops into the digestive and respiratory tracts of the liver and pancreas, and the bladder lining. 2. Mesoderm: Develops into the muscles and skeletal system, circulatory system, excretory system, gonads, and dermis (inner layer of skin) 3. Ectoderm: Develops into the epidermis (outer layer of skin), nervous system, and sweat glands.Q28: Match the following 5 hormones with their function. GlucocorticoidsPromote release of glucoseVasopressinPromotes retention of waterAldosteronePromotes sodium retentionInsulinLowers blood sugarMineralcorticoidsPromotes the retention of water and mineralsQ29: Mitochondria are thought to have originally been prokaryotes that were engulfed by a proto-eukaryote. Therefore, what type of cellular division is a mitochondrion most likely to exhibit?Binary Fission due to their similar characteristics from evolving from prokaryotes (bacteria) which mainly replicate via binary fission.ParthenogenesisThe process by which an organism develops from an unfertilized eggMitosisStandard process for cellular division of eukaryotic cellsMeiosisStandar process for cellular division of eukaryotic cellsRegenerationThe ability to regrow broken off or detached parts of the body, does not describe a method of full reproduction.Q30: If a person with blood type AB mates with a person with a blood type O, what are the possible blood types of their children?A or B A person with AB codes for the A surface marker (IA) and the B surface marker (IB). A person with type O codes for neither the A surface marker or the B surface marker.Q31: Which of the following would NOT be involved in the production of a secretory protein?Smooth ER, which functions in lipid synthesis, carbohydrate synthesis, and detoxification of toxins.Secretory Protein SynthesisManufactured on ribosomes, which are located in the rough ER. From the ER, the proteins enter the Golgi where they are modified and packaged. From the Golgi, the proteins are packaged into secretory vesicles. When the secretory vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane, the proteins are released outside the cell.Q32: If 32P is used to label both strands of double-stranded DNA, after 2 rounds of replication, four double-stranded molecules of DNA are produced, Of these...Two of the four double-stranded molecules of DNA will contain 32P, each with half of the 32P.Q33: In humans, color blindness is a sex-linked trait. The gene for color blindness is a recessive allele on the X chromosome. Affected males inherit the recessive allele from their mother. If a female who is a carrier for color blindness mates with a male who is color blind, what percentage of their female children will be color blind?50%. Normal X Chromosome = X+ Color Blindness X Chromosome = Xc Female Carrier = X+Xc Color Blind Male = XcY Female Children Genotypes 1. X+Xc 2. XcXc 3. X+Y 4. XcYQ34: Food-storing tissue in the developing plant embryo is called...EndospermGerm layers in developing animal embryos...Mesoderm, endoderm, and ectoderm.MegasporePrecursor of the female gametophyte in plantsQ35: After a scientist swam in a pond with newly hatched ducklings separated from their mother, they followed him around as if he were their mother. This is an example of...Imprinting, in which environmental patterns or objects presented to a developing organism during a brief "critical period" in early life become accepted permanently as elements of their behavior in environment.DiscriminationInvolved the ability of the learning organism to differentially respond to slightly different stimuli.Instrumental ConditioningInvolves conditioning responses to stimuli with the use of reward or reinforcement.Classical ConditioningInvolves the learning of an association between two events after repeated pairings of the two events.Q36: Which of the following is true regarding aerobic cellular respiration?NADH and FADH2 function as electron carriersQ37: In oogenesis, unlike in spermatogenesis...cytokinesis is unequal, producing one large ovum and two polar bodies.Q38: In a food chain which consists of grass, spiders, mice, snakes, and hawks, the organism with the greatest biomass is the...Grass. Organisms at the top of the food chain have the least biomass, while organisms at the bottom of the food chain greatest biomass.Q39: Sequence that best represents embryonic development...zygote --> morula --> blastula --> gastrulaQ40: Which of the following is not a steroid hormone?Insulin, which is a polypeptide hormone.Examples of steroid hormones...Estrogen, cortisol, androgen, and progesterone