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Public Health Exam 3
Terms in this set (36)
What are potential reasons for health disparities concerning cigarettes use?
Tobacco companies target low-income neighborhoods
Chronic stress associated with poverty
Childhood adversity is linked to future smoking
How can you reduce tobacco use among blue collar workers?
managerial support for workers to quit smoking, on job programs
Debates about e-cigarette use
companies say they can help quit smoking, offer a healthier way to get nicotine, but kids are actually using them to look cool
Interventions to reduce smoking
master settlement agreement (1998)- 368.5 billion over 25 year period, increase taxes on cigs, CVS doesn't sell
What are the characteristics of obesogenic food environment and potential solutions?
family and friends, worksites, schools, neighborhoods, media, policy
urban- no car and no supermarket within 1 mile; rural 10 miles
Factors that promote or deter physical activity
City Planning Policies
"walkable" neighborhood—one that has sidewalks, crosswalks, stores, and leisure destinations—has a positive effect on physical activity
with pedestrian-unfriendly streets, spread-out populations, and larger distances between homes and business areas
What is increasing obesity in the US?
increased consumption of SSB, foods away from home, increased portion sizes and evidence people eat more if it is in front of them
authoritative decisions that are intended to direct of influence the actions, behaviors, and decisions of others
4 economic justifications for government intervention in the marketplace
Externalities, Skewed market power, Public goods, Imperfect information
action of a product on consumers that imposes negative side effect on a third party
skewed market power
can be consumed concurrently by more than one individual and are free to access
the effective operation of markets relies on the fact that all the participants in the market have complete and perfect information relevant to that market
Why is public policy is a possible solution for public health issues?
How is public policy made?
problem recognition, agenda setting, policy formulation, policy implementation, policy evaluation
types of policies
redistributive, promotional, distributive, regulatory
make products cheaper for everyone (corn subsidy)
ban or tax
a tax levied as a fixed amount per unit of measurement on the producer of certain goods
a tax levied as a percentage of the price of an item. it is applied at the cash register, and therefore shows up on the consumer's receipt after purchase
drug overdose is the leading cause of accidental death in the US, illegal (heroin) and legal (oxycodone, hydrocodone, morphine, others)
Where did overdose crisis begin?
central Appalachia in West Virginia and eastern Kentucky, Fentanyl in New England
most widely used planning and evaluation model in health promotion; master plan that organizes thinking and acts as a blueprint for action, basic assumption that behaviors are complex and have multidimensional etiologies; recognizes that systems and environments control, facilitate, and limit health behavior
Health Maintenance Organization- insurers and providers, keeps costs low, can't go outside of HMO, services with a fixed payment, physicians on salary
Preferred Provider Organization- don't need primary care physician, can do in or out of network but in network is cheaper
Fee for service
traditional, pay provider or reimburse, freedom of choice with doctors, coinsurance 80/20 or 60/40 plans, more financial incentives for medial providers, deductible is usually higher
ACA important points
covered under parents until 26, can't drop someone because they get sick, an't deny coverage for preexisting conditions, 100% coverage of wellness and pregnancy, 80% must go to health care, CHIP, filling "donut hole", prevention programs covered (mental health, quit smoking helping)
ACA employer requirements
employers with 50 or more full time employees- required to provide insurance
w/200 or more- employees automatically enrolled
optional for states, originally wanted it to federal, 19 states haven't expanded
This set is often in folders with...
Public Health Test 1
Public Health Exam 2
Public Health Final Exam
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