28 terms

AP Human Geography Unit 6 Group 1

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agglomeration
The process of concentration of people, businesses, or activities.
cottage industry
Manufacturing based in homes rather than in a factory, commonly found before the Industrial Revolution.
deglomeration
The exodus of businesses from a crowded area.
industrial regions
Based on environmental considerations and the cost effectiveness of the location for the industry.
"just in time" delivery
Method of inventory management made possible by efficient transportation and communication systems, whereby companies keep on hand just what they need for near-term production, planning that what they need for longer-term production will arrive when needed.
Kanto Plain
Japan's dominant region of industrialization that includes Tokyo and other nearby cities and suburbs that form a huge metropolitan area.
labor intensive industries
Industries for which labor costs make up a high percentage of total expenses.
multiplier effect
An effect in economics in which an increase in spending produces an increase in national income and consumption greater than the initial amount spent.
new international division of labor
Transfer of some types of jobs, especially those requiring low-paid, less-skilled workers, from more developed to less developed countries.
Northeast District (China)
China's earliest industrial heartland located in Manchuria, centered on the region's coal and iron deposits near the city of Shenyang.
outsourcing
A decision by a corporation to turn over much of the responsibility for production to independent suppliers.
Pacific Rim
Countries that border the Pacific Ocean on their eastern shores that have also experienced industrialization in recent years.
post-industrial societies
Countries in which most of the population is no longer employed in industry, but rather in the service sector.
productivity
The value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it.
right-to-work laws
Laws preventing a union and a company from negotiating a contract that requires workers to join a union as a condition of employment.
single market manufacturers
Manufacturers that typically locate near the single market or market location they serve.
site factors
Location factors related to the costs of factors of production inside the plant, such as land, labor, and capital.
situation factors
Location factors related to the transportation of materials into and from a factory.
Specialized Economic Zones
Government-designated regions in China where foreign investment is allowed and capitalistic ventures are encouraged.
substitution principle
Suggests that business owners can juggle expenses, as long as labor, land rents, transportation, and other costs don't all go up at one time. If labor costs go up, they may be offset by a decline in transportation and rent costs, encouraging the owner to stay put.
ubiquitous
Appearing to be present in large numbers or in many different places.
value-added productivity
A measure of productivity generated by subtracting the costs of raw materials and energy from the gross value of the product.
variable costs
Costs that change directly with the amount of production.
variable revenue analysis
The firm's ability to capture a market that will earn more customers and money than its competitors.
Watt, James
Inventor of the steam engine, which allowed the more flexible use of energy to drive machines.
Weber's least cost theory
Model developed by Alfred Weber according to which the location of manufacturing establishments is determined by the minimization three critical expenses: labor, transportation, and agglomeration.
Weight-gaining (bulk-gaining industry)
An industry in which the final product weighs more or comprises a greater volume than the inputs.
Weight-reducing (bulk-reducing industry)
An industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume than the input.
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