Simsbury Seniors AP Psychology Disorders and Therapies

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Terms in this set (...)

Psychological Disorder
deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional patterns of thoughts, feelings, or behaviors
Deviant
Different
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity
Medical Model
the concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and in most cases, cured, often though treatment in a hospital
DSM-IV-TR
the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, updated as a 2000 "text revision"; a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders
Psychotic Disorders
a person loses contact with reality and experiences irrational ideas and distorted perceptions
Anxiety Disorders
psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
Anxiety
a feeling of apprehension, dread, or uneasiness
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
Panic Disorder
an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations
Phobia
an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object, activity, or situation
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions)
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
an anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience
Post-Traumatic Growth
positive psychological changes as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances and life crises
Agoraphobia
fear or avoidance of situations in which escape might be difficult or help unavailable when panic strikes; people may avoid being outside the home, in a crowd, on a bus, or on an elevator
Specific Phobia
may focus on animals, insects, heights, blood, or close spaces; people avoid the stimulus that arouses the fear
Social Phobia
shyness to the extreme; intense fear of being scrutinized by others; avoid potentially embarrassing social situations or will sweat, tremble, or have diarrhea when doing so
Somatoform Disorder
psychological disorder in which the symptoms take a somatic (bodily) form without apparent physical cause
Conversion Disorder
a rare somatoform disorder in which a person experiences very specific genuine physical symptoms for which no physiological basis can be found
Hypochondriasis
a somatoform disorder in which a person interprets normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease
Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD)
preoccupation with an imagined physical defect (often with the face and hands; example: Michael Jackson)
Dissociative Disorders
disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities (formerly called "multiple personality disorder")
Dissociative Amnesia
partial or total loss of important personal information following a traumatic or stressful event; usually brief, with abrupt and complete termination
Dissociative Fugue
follows a psychological stressor; sudden travel away from home or work; assumption of a new identity with an inability to recall the previous identity
Mood Disorders
psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes
Major Depressive Disorder
a mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities
Mania
a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state
Bipolar Disorder
a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania (formerly called "manic-depressive disorder")
Cyclothymia
a rare mood disorder that causes emotional ups and downs, but they're not as extreme as those in bipolar I or II disorder
Bipolar I
full spectrum of mood experience; more manic
Bipolar II
involves hypomanic episodes; more depressed
Hypomania
milder than mania
Unipolar Mood Disorders
depressive only (not manic)
Aaron Beck's "Cognitive Triad"
Chemical Imbalances that Contribute to Mood Disorders
-Low serotonin levels in people with depression
-Low norepinephrine levels in people with depression
-Anti-depressants affect the reuptake with the synapse
Schizophrenia
a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions
Rule of Thirds (Schizophrenia)
one third of those diagnosed with schizophrenia would recovery completely, a further third would be improved over time, leaving the remaining third who would not show any improvement
Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia
-Explained by the dopamine hypothesis
-Hallucinations (most common is auditory)
-Delusions (thoughts that don't have a basis in reality)
-Disorganized Speech (Word Salad and Neologisms)
Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia
-Lack of energy
-Decreased speech, use of fewer words
-Social withdrawal
-Flat affect (lack of emotions)
-Cognitive impairment
-Catatonia (involves total shutdown of interaction between person and the people around them)
Flat Affect
lack of emotions; negative symptom of schizophrenia
Catatonia
involves total shutdown of interaction between person and the people around them; symptom of schizophrenia
Delusions
false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders
Personality Disorders
psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning
Paranoid
Paranoid personality disorder is characterized by a distrust of others and a constant suspicion that people around you have sinister motives. People with this disorder tend to have excessive trust in their own knowledge and abilities and usually avoid close relationships with others. They search for hidden meanings in everything and read hostile intentions into the actions of others. They are quick to challenge the loyalties of friends and loved ones and often appear cold and distant to others. They usually shift blame to others and tend to carry long grudges.
Schizoid
People with schizoid personality disorder avoid relationships and do not show much emotion. They genuinely prefer to be alone and do not secretly wish for popularity. They tend to seek jobs that require little social contact. Their social skills are often weak and they do not show a need for attention or acceptance. They are perceived as humorless and distant and often are termed "loners."
Schizotypal
Many believe that schizotypal personality disorder represents mild schizophrenia. The disorder is characterized by odd forms of thinking and perceiving, and individuals with this disorder often seek isolation from others. They sometimes believe to have extra sensory ability or that unrelated events relate to them in some important way. They generally engage in eccentric behavior and have difficulty concentrating for long periods of time. Their speech is often over elaborate and difficult to follow.
Antisocial
A common misconception is that antisocial personality disorder refers to people who have poor social skills. The opposite is often the case. Instead, antisocial personality disorder is characterized by a lack of conscience. People with this disorder are prone to criminal behavior, believing that their victims are weak and deserving of being taken advantage of. They tend to lie and steal. Often, they are careless with money and take action without thinking about consequences. They are often aggressive and are much more concerned with their own needs than the needs of others.
Borderline
Borderline personality disorder is characterized by mood instability and poor self-image. People with this disorder are prone to constant mood swings and bouts of anger. Often, they will take their anger out on themselves, causing themselves injury. Suicidal threats and actions are not uncommon. They think in very black and white terms and often form intense, conflict-ridden relationships. They are quick to anger when their expectations are not met.
Histrionic
People with histrionic personality disorder are constant attention seekers. They need to be the center of attention all the time, often interrupting others in order to dominate the conversation. They use grandiose language to describe everyday events and seek constant praise. They may dress provocatively or exaggerate illnesses in order to gain attention. They also tend to exaggerate friendships and relationships, believing that everyone loves them. They are often manipulative.
Narcissistic
Narcissistic personality disorder is characterized by self-centeredness. Like histrionic disorder, people with this disorder seek attention and praise. They exaggerate their achievements, expecting others to recognize them as being superior. They tend to be choosy about picking friends, since they believe that not just anyone is worthy of being their friend. They tend to make good first impressions, yet have difficulty maintaining long-lasting relationships. They are generally uninterested in the feelings of others and may take advantage of them.
Avoidant
Avoidant personality disorder is characterized by extreme social anxiety. People with this disorder often feel inadequate, avoid social situations, and seek out jobs with little contact with others. They are fearful of being rejected and worry about embarrassing themselves in front of others. They exaggerate the potential difficulties of new situations to rationalize avoiding them. Often, they will create fantasy worlds to substitute for the real one. Unlike schizoid personality disorder, avoidant people yearn for social relations et feel they are unable to obtain them. They are frequently depressed had have low self-confidence.
Dependent
Dependent personality disorder is characterized by a need to be taken care of. People with this disorder tend to cling to people and fear losing them. They may become suicidal when a break-up is imminent. They tend to let others make important decisions for them and often jump from relationship to relationship. They often remain in abusive relationships. They are overly sensitive to disapproval. They often feel helpless and depressed.
Obsessive-Compulsive
Obsessive-Compulsive personality disorder is similar to obsessive-compulsive anxiety disorder. People with this disorder are overly focused on orderliness and perfection. Their need to do everything "right" often interferes with their productivity. They tend to get caught up in the details and miss the bigger picture. They set unreasonably high standards for themselves and others, and tend to be very critical of others when they do not live up to these high standards. They avoid working in teams, believing others to be too careless or incompetent.
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)
recognizing the thought loop; treatment for anxiety disorder
Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT)
for extreme emotional states; treatment for anxiety disorder
Cingulotomy
removes the cingulate; treatment for OCD
Eclectic Approach
an approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy
Psychotherapy
treatment involving psychological techniques; consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth
Psychoanalysis
Sigmund Freud's therapeutic technique. Freud believed the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences-- and the therapist's interpretations of them-- released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight
Resistance
in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material
Interpretation
in psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight
Transference
in psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent)
Psychodynamic Therapy
therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and that seeks to enhance self-insight
Insight Therapies
a variety of therapies that aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing the client's awareness of underlying motives and defenses
Client-Centered Therapy
a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients' growth (also called "person-centered therapy")
Active Listening
Empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers' client=centered therapy
Unconditional Positive Regard
a caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude, which Carl Rogers believed would help clients to develop self-awareness and self-acceptance
Behavior Therapy
therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behavior
Counterconditioning
a behavior therapy procedure that uses classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors; includes exposure therapies and aversive conditioning
Exposure Therapies
behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actuality_ to the things they fear and avoid
Systematic Desensitization
a type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed stated with gradually increasing anxiety triggering stimuli; commonly used to treat phobias
Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy
-an anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking
-example of exposure and response prevention therapy
Aversive Conditioning
a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)
Token Economy
an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats
Cognitive Therapy
therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
a popular integrative therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior)
Family Therapy
Therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by, or directed at, other family members.
Biomedical Therapy
prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient's nervous system
Psychopharmacology
the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior
Antipsychotic Drugs
drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorder
Tardive Dyskinesia
involuntary movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and limbs; a possible neurotoxic side effect of long-term use of antipsychotic drugs that target certain dopamine receptors
Antianxiety Drugs
-Drugs used to control anxiety and agitation
-Ex. Xanax; Ativan
-Depress central nervous system activity
-Often used in combination with psychological therapy
Antidepressant Drugs
Drugs used to treat depression; also increasingly prescribed for anxiety. Different types work by altering the availability of various neurotransmitters.
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient
Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)
the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity
Psychosurgery
surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior
Lobotomy
A now-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain.
Resilience
the personal strength that helps most people cope with stress and recover from adversity and even trauma