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Am studies: Road to the Civil War
Terms in this set (25)
-United States abolitionist who escaped from slavery and became an influential writer and lecturer in the North (1817-1895)
-Fighting off bloodhounds
-Throwing slaves across the river to freedom
-Joining together and "frolicking" on Saturday nights after work (resisting suffering)
-Refusing to plea for mercy
-Learning to read and right
-Praying in secret
-Communicating in code words and songs
How did slaves cope with the institution of slavery?
-laws which each US state, or colony, enacted which defined the status of slaves and the rights of masters. Such codes gave slave-owners absolute power over their human property
-Prohibited slaves traveling in groups
-No practicing religion other than their masters
-Must carry slave tag(identification)
-Prohibited them from reading or writing(could help them create rebellion)
-from Europe to Africa, from Africa to America, and from America back to Europe
The three elements of the the Triangle Trade
-Use of a religious motif as a way to express yearning for freedom
-Gave hope, allowed them to feel human
-I might not be free now, but sometime I will reach freedom
-A spiritual journey toward freedom
-One person begins...followed by a call-response of a community
-Individual sorrow or joy became a communal experience
-Considered African Americans to be at the level of intelligence as a child, therefore they should be at the bottom of the hierarchy and governed as children
-Believed that African Americans are lazy
-Believed African Americans are inferior to whites and would fail in society
-Believed slavery Christianizes, protects, supports, and civilizes African Americans
-Believed slavery in the U.S was much less cruel than the slavery they could face in Africa
-Believed African Americans will make society suffer
-Believed society had a right to subjecting African Americans to domestic slavery
-Believed whites were inferior to African American
-Believed America was saving African Americans from the rough slavery in Africa by putting them to slavery in America
-Believed it was a more personal system than a paid labor system; more like "family"
How did Southerners/Abolitionists defend/attack the institution of slavery?
-Balance of Power
Four main themes related to the causes of the civil war
Compromise over the issue of slavery in Missouri. It was decided Missouri entered as a slave state and Maine entered as a free state and all states North of the 36'30 line were free states and all South were slave states.
Slave Power Conspiracy
The concept that the South was trying to extend slavery throughout the nation and thus trying to destroy the openness of northern capitalism and replace it with the closed, aristocratic system of the South
1) CA enters as a free state
2) Popular sovereignty(people rule to decide if they are slave or free state) in the NM and Utah Territories
3) Slave trade abolished in Washington DC
4) Texas borders and debt finalized
5) A stricter fugitive slave law
FIVE COMPONENTS OF COMPROMISE OF 1850
Fugitive Slave Law
-provided for the return of escaped slaves to their owners
-required that northern states forcibly returned escaped slaves to their owners
-Lincoln is in favor because we are respecting southern rights, hates to see them hunted down, but wants to maintain the union
-No slave is free, no matter where they are
Personal Liberty Law
Laws passed by Northern states forbidding the imprisonment of escaped slaves and guaranteeing them to a fair trial; used to counter the Fugitive Slave Laws
-Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.
-Repealed Missouri Compromise bc Kansas and Nebraska were north of the 36 30 line where slavery was forbidden
-Realigned the nation's political party system: free soil republicans
free soil republicans
Lincoln's party who fought for the eradication of slavery and against the expansion of slavery into the territories
opened up states to popular sovereignty to get the transcontinental railroad to end in Illinois---needed South to say yes so he gave them power by giving them the expansion of slavery in the West in lands where it was opposed--as a result he got what he wanted transcontinental railroad to end in Chicago... becomes transportation center
-As long as both parties avoided a clear position on the issue of slavery, they managed to draw national support
-The parties needed to come to a consensus about the issue of slavery. Two different positions was not going to work out. As each side gained national support, the gap between them grew larger. This will cause the destruction of national parties, making the South feel that they are better off without the North.
A harbinger of things to come?
-A black slave, had lived with his master for 5 years in Illinois and Wisconsin Territory. Backed by interested abolitionists, he sued for freedom on the basis of his long residence on free soil. The ruling on the case was that He was a black slave and not a citizen, so he had no rights
-First weigh in of the judicial branch on the issue of slavery
-Missouri and two federal courts said he was free
-Sanford sent him to the Supreme Court and he was deemed a slave
-Bad timing of political division(regional political divisions) made it more difficult to come to a conclusion
-Believed African Americans are not citizens
-Important because it set the entire case against Scott, because if he is not even a citizen then he shouldn't be able to sue or be a free man
Why does Chief Justice Taney believe that Dred Scott is not a citizen of the United States? Why is this issue important for the case?
"There is certainly no power given by the Constitution to the Federal Government to establish or maintain colonies bordering on the United States or at a distance, to be ruled and governed at its own pleasure; nor to enlarge its territorial limits in any way, except by the admission of new States. That power is plainly given; and if a new State is admitted, it needs no further legislation by Congress, because the Constitution itself defines the relative rights and powers, and duties of the State, and the citizens of the State, and the Federal Government. But no power is given to acquire a Territory to be held and governed permanently in that character."
What is Chief Justice Taney's reasoning for declaring that the Missouri Compromise is unconstitutional? Why is this issue important for the case?
-No, he believed that no African American is free; they are below everyone and are not citizens
-We think they [people of African ancestry] are not [citizens], and that they are not included, and were not intended to be included, under the word "citizens" in the Constitution, and can therefore claim none of the rights and privileges which that instrument provides for and secures to citizens of the United States.
Does Chief Justice Taney agree with the doctrine "once free, always free?" Explain.
Fanatical abolitionist who killed five at Pottawatomie Creek, seized the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry in western Virginia, and was hanged and became a martyr.
Kansas was being disputed for free or slave soil during 1854-1857, by popular sovereignty. In 1857, there were enough free-soilers to overrule the slave-soilers. So many people were feuding that disagreements eventually led to killing in Kansas between pro-slavery and anti-slavery forces.
John Brown's scheme to invade the South with armed slaves, backed by sponsoring, northern abolitionists; seized the federal arsenal; Brown and remnants were caught by Robert E. Lee and the US Marines; Brown was hanged; forced people to take sides
ELECTION OF 1860
-Lincoln, the Republican candidate, beat Breckenridge because the Democratic party was split over slavery. As a result, the South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a number of states seceded from the Union.
-LED TO TWO Regional political parties as opposed to national political parties-One in North and one in South
South Caroline, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, Tennessee
states that seceded from the Union
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