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forces and motion knowledge organiser
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Terms in this set (70)
scalar
a quantity which only has a magnitude
vector
a quantity which has both magnitude and direction
distance
how far an object moves
displacement
how far an object moves in a stated direction
speed
the rate at which a moving object covers distance
average speed
the effective speed of a moving object over an entire journey or section of journey
instantaneous speed
the speed of a moving object at a moment in time
velocity
the speed of an object in a given direction
distance time graph
a graph showing the motion of an object
distance plotted on y axis and time plotted on x axis
a line of constant gradient shows constant speed
a horizontal line shows a stationary object
curved, increasing gradient is acceleration
curved, decreasing gradient is decceleration
gradient
the name for the slope of a line graph
can be found by choosing two coordinates on the line and reading off their x and y values. to calculate the gradient you would divide y by x (rise over run)
tangent
a straight line used to help calculate the gradient of a curved line at a specific point.
where you have a curved line on a graph, use a ruler to draw a straight line. it must touch the curve at the point of interest, then measure the gradient of this line
acceleration
rate of change of velocity
velocity time graph
a graph showing the motion of an object.
velocity is on the y axis and time is on the x axis
the gradient equals the acceleration of the object
a line of constant, positive gradient shows constant acceleration
a horizontal line shows constant speed
a line of constant, negative gradient shows constant decceleration
force
a push or pull from one object to another
contact forces
types of forces which only act when two objects are touching
non-contact forces
types of forces which can act from a distance
resultant force
a single force that has the same effect as all the forces acting on an object
gravity
an effect where objects with mass are attracted to one another
weight
the force of gravity on an object
mass
the amount of matter in an object
centre of mass
a point at which all the mass of an object can be imagined to be. an objects weight acts from this point and you can therefore balance an object about its centre of mass
drag
aka air/water resistance
a force which resists an object moving through air or any fluid
occurs because when you move through a fluid you push particles of that fluid out of your way - but they push back
terminal velocity
the constant velocity of a falling object when the force of air resistance is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the force of gravity
extension
the increase in length of an object when pulled in two opposite directions by forces
calculated by subtracting the original length from the new length of the object
compression
when an object decreases in length, height or thickness due to forces acting on it
elastic
any material that returns to its original length when a stretching force is taken away
directly proportional
when a graph of two variables is a straight line passing through the origin
hooke's law
a law which elastic materials obey when stretched
'up to a maximum force, the size of a stretching force is directly proportional to the extension of the object'
limit of proportionality
the limit beyond which, when a wire or spring is stretched, its extension is no longer proportional to the force that stretches it
force-extension graph
a graph of force against extension (or compression), with the area under the graph equal to the work done on the material
spring constant
a measure of the stiffness of a spring
elastic potential energy
energy stored by something that can stretch or compress
force arrow
a way of representing forces on objects
the base of the arrow starts on the object on which the force acts
the length of the arrow represents the size of the force
it's direction shows the direction in which the force acts
vector components
two vectors which are equivalent to a third vector when added.
equilibrium
an object which remains motionless or moving at a constant velocity
(in equilibrium because the resultant force is balanced and equal to 0)
vector scale diagram
a diagram drawn in pencil where we create a scale, and the draw vectors as arrows with their magnitude represented according to that scale. the direction of the vectors is accurately shown by using a protractor. vector scale diagrams allow us to work out the effect of multiple vectors acting together, without the need to use trigonometry
gravitational potential energy
the energy stored in an object when work is done on it against gravitational forces
momentum
the product of multiplying an objects mass with its velocity
conservation of momentum
in the absence of external forces, the total momentum before and after an event is the same
collision
an event where objects which already have momentum make contact with each other, and momentum is transferred between them
explosion
an event where a form of potential energy is transferred into kinetic energy - before and after there is zero momentum
air bag
a safety bag that automatically inflates upon impact in a collision
seat belt
a safety belt used in a car or plane to hold you in your seat in case of an accident
stopping distance
the distance it takes to stop after the brakes are applied
thinking distance
the distance travelled by the vehicle in the time it takes the driver to react
braking distance
the distance a car travels from the time the driver applies the brakes until the car comes to a complete stop
reaction time
the amount of time taken to respond to a specific stimulus
deceleration
negative acceleration
gravitational field strength
the force acting on an object with a mass of 1kg at a point in an gravitational field
kinetic energy
the energy an object has due to its motion
power
the rate at which work is done
efficiency
the percentage of the input work that is converted to output work
energy
the ability to do work
work done
the product of the size of a force acting on an object, multiplied by the distance the object moves in the direction of the force
measured in joules
equal to energy transferred to and from an object
work done against a force
where a force causes energy to be transferred away from an object
work done by a force
where a force causes energy to be transferred to an object
resistive force
any force which opposes the motion of an object
objects must do work against such forces in order to maintain their velocity
dissipation
the transfer of energy that increases the thermal energy store of the surroundings
it cannot be easily recovered
newtons 1st law of motion
an object at rest remains at rest, and an object in motion remains in motion at constant speed and in a straight line unless acted on by an unbalanced force
inertia
the tendency of an object to resist a change in its motion
inertial mass
a measure of an object's resistance to any type of force
newtons 2nd law of motion
the acceleration of an object as produced by a net force is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force, in the same direction as the net force, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object
newtons 3rd law of motion
for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
interaction force pair
two forces which occur when two objects interact, which are equal in size and type, opposite in direction and each act on different objects
pivot
a point around which an object can turn or rotate
moment
the product of multiplying a force with its perpendicular distance to a pivot
measured in newton metres
represents the turning effect of a force on an object
perpendicular distance
the straight line distance between a pivot and the line along which a force acts, when drawn at 90° to the line of the force
gear
a circular disc with teeth around its circumference, mounted on an axle through its centre. gears interlock with one another, meaning that if the axle through the first gear is rotated, the other gears axles will also rotate. the relative speed of rotation can be varied by varying the ratio of the number of teeth on each gear
principle of moments
for an object to balance about a pivot, the sum of the clockwise moments must equal the sum of the anti-clockwise moments
lever
a device which uses moments in order to magnify force, so that the levers output force is greater than the input force
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