Personnel Psychology - Exam 2

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Forecasting
The attempts to determine the supply of and demand for various types of human resources to predict areas within the organization where there will be labor shortages or surpluses
Trend Analysis
constructing and applying statistical models that predict labor demand for the next year, given relatively objective statistics from the previous year
leading indicators
objective measures that accurately predict future labor demand
transitional matrix
a chart that lists job categories held in one period and shows the proportion of employees in each of those job categories in a future period
core competency
a set of knowledge and skills that make the organization superior to competitors and create value for customers
downsizing
the planned elimination of large numbers of personnel with the goal of enhancing the organization's competitiveness
outsourcing
contracting with another organization to perform a broad set of services
Workforce Utilization Review
A comparison of the proportion of employees in protected groups with the proportion that each group represents in the relevant labor market
recruiting
any activity carried on by the organization with the primary purpose of identifying and attracting potential employees
employment at will
employment principle that if there is no specific employment contract saying otherwise, the employer or employee may end an employment relationship at any time, regardless of cause
due-process policies
policies that formally lay out the steps an employee may take to appeal the employer's decision to terminate that employee
job posting
the process of communicating information about a job vacancy on company bulletin boards, in employee publications, on corporate intranets, and anywhere else the organization communicates with employees
direct applicants
people who apply for a vacancy without prompting from the organization
referrals
people who apply for a vacancy because someone in the organization them to do so
nepotism
the practice of hiring relatives
yield ratio
a ratio that expresses the percentage of applicants who successfully move from one stage of the recruitment and selection process to the next
Realistic Job Preview
background information about a job's positive and negative qualities
personnel selection
the process through which organizations make decisions about who will or will not be allowed to join the organization
reliability
the extent to which a measurement is free from random error
validity
the extent to which performance on a measure (such as a test score) is related to what the measure is designed to assess (such as job performance).
criterion-related validity
a measure of validity based on showing a substantial correlation between test scores and job performance scores
predictive validation
research that uses the test scores of all applicants and looks for a relationship between the scores and future performance of the applicants who were hired
concurrent validation
research that consists of administering a test to people who currently hold a job, then comparing their scores to existing measures of job performance
content validity
consistency between the test items or problems and the kinds of situations or problems that occur on the job
construct validity
consistency between a high score on a test and high level of a construct such as intelligence or leadership ability, as well as between mastery of this construct and successful performance of the job
generalizable
valid in other contexts beyond the context in which the selection method was developed
utility
the extent to which something provides economic value greater than its cost
immigration reform and control act of 1986
federal law requiring employers to verify and maintain records on applicants' legal rights to work in the united states
aptitude tests
tests that asses how well a person can learn or acquire skills and abilites
achievement tests
tests that measure a person's existing knowledge and skills
cognitive ability tests
tests designed to measure such mental abilities as verbal skills quantitative skills, and reasoning ability
assessment center
a wide variety of specific selection programs that use multiple selection methods to rate applicants or job incumbents on their management potential
nondirective interview
a selection interview in which the interviewer has great discretion in choosing questions to ask each candidate
structured interview
a selection interview that consists of a predetermined set of questions for the interviewer to ask
situational interview
a structured interview in which the interviewer describes a situation likely to arise on the job, then asks the candidate what he or she would do in that situation
behavior description interview (BDI)
a structured interview in which the interviewer asks the candidate to describe how he or she handled a type of a situation in the past
panel interview
selection interview in which several members of the organization meet to interview each candidate
multiple-hurdle model
process of arriving at a selection decision by eliminating some candidates at each stage of the selection process
compensatory model
process of arriving at a selection decision in which a very high score on one type of assessment can make up for a low score on another
training
an organization's planned efforts to help employees acquire job-related knowledge, skills, abilities and behaviors, with the goal of applying these on the job
instructional design
a process of systematically developing training to meet specified needs
learning management system (LMS)
a computer application that automates the administration, development, and delivery of training programs
needs assessment
the process of evaluating the organization, individual employees, and employees' tasks to determine what kinds of training, if any, are necessary
organizational analysis
a process for determining the appropriateness of training by evaluating the characteristics of the organization
person analysis
a process of determining individuals' needs and readiness for training
task analysis
the process of identifying and analyzing tasks to be trained for
readiness for training
a combination of employee characteristics and positive work environment that permit training
E-Learning
receiving training via the internet or the organization's intranet
Electronic Performance Support system (EPSS)
computer application that provides access to skills training, information, and expert advice as needed
On the job training (OJT)
training methods in which a person with job experience and skill guides trainees in practicing job skills at the workplace
apprenticeship
a work-study training method that teaches job skills through a combination of on-the-job training and classroom training
internship
on-the-job learning sponsored by an educational institution as a component of an academic program
simulation
a training method that represents a real-life situation, with trainees making decisions resulting in outcomes that mirror what would happen on the job
avatars
computer depictions of trainees, which the trainees manipulate in an online role-play
virtual reality
a computer-based technology that provides an interactive, three-dimensional learning experience
experiential programs
training programs in which participants learn concepts and apply them by simulating behaviors involved and analyzing the activity, connecting it with real-life situations
adventure learning
a teamwork and leadership training program based on the use of challenging, structured outdoor activities
cross-training
team training in which team members understand and practice each other's skills so that they are prepared to step in and take another member's place
coordination training
team training that teaches the team how to share information and make decisions to obtain the best team performance
team leader training
training in the skills necessary for effectively leading the organization's teams
action learning
training in which teams get an actual problem, work on solving it and commit to an action plan, and are accountable for carrying it out
readability
the difficulty level of written materials
transfer of training
on the job use of knowledge, skills, and behaviors learned in training
communities of practice
groups of employees who work together learn from each other, and develop a common understanding of how to get work accomplished
orientation
training designed to prepare employees to perform their jobs effectively, learn about their organization, and establish work relationships
diversity training
training designed to change employe attitudes about diversity and/or develop skills needed to work with a diverse workforce
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