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Terms in this set (36)
What are the limitations of Cross-Cultural Psychology?
1. Most of psychological theorizing and research was done in the USA and Europe
2. Culture is ignored and taken as one variable among others
Is what we know about human behavior true for all people, regardless, of gender, race, ethnicity, class, or lifestyle?
-Far too much human psychology is based on studies of White Male Middle-Class Anglo-Saxon Protestant Undergraduates for us to attach much confidence to the claim that the models it generates describe general characteristics of human beings
-False Generalizations: findings of the study are considered true for a larger group of people than those actually represented in the study
-A tendency to use one's own group's standards as the standards (norm)
-Different is judged as wrong
Universal aspects of culture (comparative)
Specific aspects of culture (non-comparative)
How do Cross-cultural psychologists test the limits of the knowledge in psychology?
By examining whether psychological theories/principles are UNIVERSAL (true for all people) or CULTURE-SPECIFIC (true for people of some cultures)
-Culture is nothing more than noise that has to be tuned out in real research
-BUT there has been accumulate evidence regarding variability in psychological processes across cultural groups
-Awareness of cultural diversity is increasing
1. Tests the universal validity of psychological theories and findings (their generality)
2. Explores different cultures in order to discover psychological variations: searches for diversity and differences
3. Tries to explain these cultural differences and build a more ENCOMPASSING psychology
Is the critical and comparative study of cultural effects on human psychology, examining cultural diversity and the underlying reasons for such diversity,
studying cross-cultural interactions and establishing psychological universals
Cross-Cultural vs. Cultural
-Cross-Cultural: test differences between samples drawn from relevant ethnic groups or nations. Analyze the generalizability of psychological theories. Believe that cultures CAN be compared. UNIVERSALISTS (etics)
-Cultural: often study what occurs within a single cultural group. Believe that psychological processes are culture bound. Reject comparisons, and classify as nonrelevant. All cultures are totally unique and need to be studied and understood on their own terms. RELATIVISTS (emics)
Intercultural vs. Multicultural
-Intercultural: focus primarily upon the SOCIAL processes occurring when members of different cultural groups interact with one another (like intercultural relationships)
-Multicultural: Primarily identified with studying gender, ethnicity, race, class, and other "diversity" issues within the US
Culture & its function
-We use the concept of culture to describe and explain a broad range of activities, behaviors, events, structures in our lives.
-Basic biological needs (reproduction; bodily comfort; stimulation; health) => cultural response (kinship; shelter; activities; hygiene)
(Universal issue - how to adapt to environment)
-Culture creates SOLUTION to those most basic problems.
-Solutions are group-specific.
-Cultural solutions are determined by physical environment; ecological factors; poor or abundant natural resources!
Explicit vs. Implicit
-Explicit- what is physical representation of cultures- objective; Ex: food, clothes, etc.
-Implicit-unstated, underlying assumption that we cant observe directly; culture is widely shared and lived, but not widely discussed-> full definition: Shared ideals and concepts among people who most often speak the same language dialect and live in proximity to each other (same time and place). These ideals and concepts are transmitted for generations and they provide guidance for everyday behavior.
Elements of implicit culture
-Values: ideas about what is good and desirable (equality, tradition, achievement)
-Beliefs: ideas about what is true
"Women are less intelligent / rational / moral / than men"
-Norms: ideas about expected behavior (norm-tight & norm-loose cultures; punishment) EX: Taliban culture; Thai culture--depends on domain, where you live, etc.
-Roles: special category of norms - ideas about the correct behavior of people who hold a position in a group
The set of ATTITUDES, VALUES, BELIEFS, NORMS, ROLES AND BEHAVIORS SHARED by a group of people but are DIFFERENT for each individual, COMMUNICATED from one generation to the next
Enculturation & Socialization
-We acquire our culture through the processes of enculturation and socialization
Levels of analysis
Methodology- 4 stages of research
1. Cross-Cultural Comparison
-Question: Are the cultures being compared different on the psychological variable of interest?
-Unit of analysis: individual
-Methodology: A sample of participants in 2 or more cultures are measured on a certain variable and are compared.
-Limits: We can't know if the differences are produced culturally (or what aspect of culture determines them)
2.Ecological-level studies (ETIC)
-Q:What are the dimensions of culture that exist on a country/nation level
-M: Data for cultures (averages aggregated from individ. responses) are compared
-Limit: findings may not be applicable on the individual level.
3. Cultural Studies-specific (EMIC)
-Q: What is it about particular cultures that produce differences, and WHY? HOW?
-UA: Both individuals and cultural phenomena
-M: qualitative (rich descriptions of complex theories)
-Limit: Speculative. Can't be sure whether cultural processes described in theories are really related to the psychological differences...
4. Linkage studies
-Q: How are specific measurable contextual variables empirically related to psychological processes?
-M: Specific aspects of culture (thought to produce differences) are measured or manipulated and related to a psych variable of interest.
-L: Can't be sure if other contextual V. better explain the differences...
Equivalence of measurement (methodology)
To what degree our study measures accurately the phenomenon in different cultures
-Conceptual equivalence: does YYY have the same meaning across cultures? Do we measure the same theoretical construct
-Construct validity: operational definition:
What exactly will we measure in our study (what aspects, manifestations) and How (methods, procedure)?--Researchers need to be very concrete and explicit in the definition of the construct
-Meaning equivalence (level of language)
Connotative and denotative meaning of the words/concepts used in the study
Denotative: no word for stress in village Nepali
Connotative: Word for anger in Spanish; but does it have same connotation, association, strength, interpretation...?
-*Structural equivalence of the measure: whether the same configuration of factors emerges in different cultures = similar mental constructs are activated
-are the words used (questionnaires, instruction) semantically equivalent across the languages?
-Back translation: to eliminate culture -specific concepts, meanings, connotations (decentering of the original lang.)
-Yes/No questions- easy to answer, positive q = positive response and vice versa
-Good study: many samples from the same culture
-Comparable samples: Similar age, sex, socioeconomic status...
Solutions: same characteristics; after study - statistically controlled in analyses
-same degree of familiarity, meaning, implications with methods employed
Biases- Response Bias
-A systematic tendency to respond in a certain way to items
-Socially desirable responding: giving answers that make oneself look good
A. Self-deceptive enhancement (seeing oneself in a positive light) (European Americans)
B. Impression management (Korean Americans)
-Acquiescence: AGREEING with items on questionnaires regardless of their content
-Use of scale: extreme responses--Tendency to use the ends of the scale regardless of the content (Mediterranean cultures: Spain, Greece, Italy...)
-involuntary and without specific teaching acquisition of culture competence (introjection/incorporation/UNC)
-the process of adapting to, and in many cases adopting, a different culture from the one in which a person was born and originally socialized.
-deliberate shaping / teaching of the individual by the socialization agents (parents, teachers...)
-Notion similar to biological or genetic transmission: certain characteristics of a group are perpetuated over time across generations
Vertical transmission: from parents
Horizontal: from peers and siblings
Oblique: from other adults and other socialization agents in general (teachers, politicians, artists)
-beliefs about the correct development (e.g., age for specific skills acquisition) and the parental norms (crying baby, sleeping patterns, parents´ roles)
-beliefs about the basic developmental goals and parental roles: 1.protection & survival vs. 2. active engagement and social exchange
-broader culture influences (individualist vs. collectivistic culture)--> Parental Ethnotheories (beliefs about correct development)-->goals and expectations, parenting styles and strategies (behaviors are consistent with beliefs)
-Parental Ethnotheories include sleeping arrangements, day organization, time/effor dedicated, punishments/rewards
*Can't judge parenting styles based on the affluent and well-fed
-The role of culture for physical, cognitive, moral development
1. Differences in child rearing and socialization practices and how they impact development
2. Universality of psychological theories of development
Nature vs. Nurture
-Maturation as the gradual unfolding of one's genetic blueprint = unchangeable
-Universal sequences in development!
-Meditating role of culture
-Permissive: Warm and nurturing, but give little guidance, allow too much freedom; don't require child to take responsibility (dependent and immature ch.)
-Authoritarian: Enforce rigid rules; demand strict obedience to authority (obedient, emotionally stiff ch.)
-Authoritative: Supply firm and consistent guidance; demands combined with love and affection--children benefit from this: competent, self-controlled, independent, and assertive; securely attached; resilient
*Universal- the three major patterns of parenting styles and strategies
*Culture specific- the prevalence and the meaning attached
-Biologically based style of interacting with the world (treshold/patters of neuro-irritability)
-Temperament is the physical aspect of personality: sensitivity, irritability, intensity
-3 Types of Temperament
--easy (regular, adaptable)
--difficult (irregular, intense)
--slow to warm up (withdrawn, but eventually...)
"Goodness of Fit"
-interaction of a child's temperament with culture and that of the parents
-Parents: may stabilize infant's T. further if it fits their own or the one that's culturally valued
Cross-Cultural differences in Temperament
-Cultural experiences during pregnancy
-Ethnotheories & parental practice
-Close emotional bonds of affection that develop between infants and their caregivers
Provides a secure base
-Infants and adults are biologically predisposed to form attachments (Reflexes: cooing, smiling, gazing)
-First attachment provides a lifelong schema for how we approach and experience other people
Evolutionary Theory of Attachment
1. Secure- security, love, confidence
2. Fear, anxiety- anxious and ambivalent
3.Defensiveness- avoidant A
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