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Chapter 7 Inside the Cell
Terms in this set (83)
All cells have...
nucleic acids that store information, proteins that perform most of the cell's function, carbohydrates that provide chemical energy, carbon support, & identity, & a plasma membrane (selectively permeable)
What two categories are cells divided into?
prokaryotes & eukaryotes
Do you eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells have membrane-bound organelles?
Do prokaryotic cells have a nucleus?
What three domains are organisms divided into?
What are the parts of prokaryotic cells?
segments of DNA that contain information for building RNA
How does DNA fit into a cell?
the double helix coils on itself with enzymes to form the compact sturcture
location & structural organization of the circular chromosome
circular, supercoiled DNA molecules; contains genes but are independent of cellular chromosomes
complex structures composed of large & small subunits, each of which contains RNA & protein molecules
suite of chemical reactions responsible for converting the energy in sunlight into chemical energy stored for sugars; contains enzymes & pigment molecules that are required for this reaction to occur
membrane-bound compartments inside the cell that contains enzymes or structures specialized for a particular function
What types of tasks do organelles perform?
store calcium ions & organize enzymes responsible for synthesizing complex carbon compounds
made up of protein filaments that are the base for cytoskeleton; helps maintain shape
everything inside the membrane excluding the nucleus
The plasma membrane consists of a ___________ ____________ & proteins that span the bilayer.
Pressure from _____________ is resisted due to the presence of the cell wall.
The cell wall __________ the organism & gives it __________.
needlelike projections that extend form the plasma membrane of some bacteria & promote attachment to there cells or surfaces
Brown & red algae, fungi, amoebae, molds, & animals are examples of.....
As a cell increases in diameter, its volume ______________ more than its surface area.
Prokaryotic cells tend to be small enough so that ions arrive where they are needed via ____________.
location of DNA in bacteria & archaea....
nucleoid or plasmids
location of DNA in eukaryotes....
inside the nucleus
internal membrane & organelles in bacteria & archaea....
only in photosynthetic species
internal membrane & organelles in eukaryotes...
large numbers of organelles; many types of organelles
cytoskeleton in bacteria & archaea....
relative to eukaryotes
cytoskeleton in eukaryotes...
found throughout volume of cell
overall size of bacteria & archaea...
usually small relative to eukaryotes
overall size of eukaryotes....
most are larger than prokaryotes
fluid portion between the plasma membrane & these organelles is only a fraction of the total cell volume
incompatible chemical reactions can be separated
Eukaryotic chromosomes are found in the __________.
Eukaryotic cells are often ___________ than prokaryotic cells.
Eukaryotic cells contain extensive amounts of internal _____________.
Eukaryotic cells feature a particularly diverse & dynamic ______________.
contains the chromosomes & functions as an administrative center for information storage & processing; enclosed by the nuclear envelope
contains the nucleolus--> where RNA molecules found in ribosomes are manufactured
complex macromolecular machines that manufacture proteins; protein synthesis
where portions of the nuclear envelope extend into the cytoplasm to form an extensive membrane
transmission of electron micrographs; synthesize proteins that will be inserted into plasma membrane
where protein undergo folding & processing
inside of the ER (lumen)
Does rough ER or smooth ER have ribosomes?
contains enzymes that catalyze reactions involving lipids; synthesize lipids needed by organism
functions primarily as protein-manufacturing center
functions primarily as a lipid-processing center
USP system of the cell; stores & transfers
functions as recycling center; digestion
center for producing, processing, & transporting proteins & lipids in eukaryotic cells
act as storage depots
EX: potassium & chloride
single membrane & originate as buds from the ER; center for reduction oxidation reactions
powerhouse of the cell; ATP production
solution enclosed within the inner membrane
double membrane where enzymes that use light energy to make sugars are stored
light energy into chemical energy
region outside the thylakoids that contains enzymes that use this chemical energy to produce sugars
extensive system of protein fibers; gives cell its shape & structure
What three things have a cell wall?
fungi, algae, & plants
based on breaking cells apart to create a complex mixture & separating component in a centrifuge
Nuclear __________ provides an attachment point for the chromosomes.
openings in the nuclear envelope
DNA is used to synthesize _________ inside the nucleus.
manufactured in the nucleus, where they bind to proteins to carry the information required to manufacture proteins
carry the information required to manufacture proteins
other proteins bound for the nucleus, even those expressed by some viruses, have similar amino cid sequences directing their transport
nuclear localization signal
Proteins are produced by ribosomes that are either free in the ________ or on the surface of the ER.
Proteins that are _____________ in the rough ER move to the Golgi apparatus for processing & from there they travel to the cell surface.
Where does this occur.....
New cistern are constantly formed at the cis face of ________.
transport vesicle is bound for the plasma membrane, where it will secrete its contents to the outside
refers to any pinching off of the plasma membrane that results in the uptake of material form outside the cell
What are the three cytoskeletal elements in eukaryotic cells?
actin filaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules
fibrous structures made of the globular protein actin
microfilaments (actin filaments)
two long strands that coil around each other; form when individual actin protein subunits polymerize from head to tail
What are the functions of actin filament?
provide structural support, maintain cell shape, move organelles & cytoplasm in plants fungi & animals, & divide animal cells into two
process of cell division
not involved in directed movement driven by myosin but instead serve a purely structural role in eukaryotic cells
What are the functions of intermediate filaments?
maintain cell shape & anchor nucleus & some other organelles
What is the largest cytoskeletal component? *a-tubulin & b-tubulin
What are the functions of microtubules?
maintain cell shape, move cells via flagella or cilia, move chromosomes, & tracks for intracellular transport
motor protein that converts chemical energy in ATP into mechanical energy in the form of movement
long, whip-like projections from the cell surface that function in movement
short, hair-like projections that are also founding some eukaryotic cells
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