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Oral pathology - Chapter 7
Terms in this set (54)
Cell exhibit uncontrolled proliferation, resulting in a mass of abnormal cells.
Swelling or enlargement of tissues.
Synonymous for "neoplasia".
Study of tumors (neoplasms)
Virus that causes cancer.
Other causes: carcinogens, radiation, genetics, unknown.
Malignant tumor of epithelium.
Malignant tumor of connective tissues or non-epithelial tissues.
White, plaque-like lesion of oral mucosa.
Cannot be wiped off.
Usually due to hyperkeratosis.
100% may be malignant or pre-malignant.
May be more serious than white lesion
Less common than leukoplakia in oral cavity.
Change in cells from normal to abnormal state.
Disordered growth; alteration in size, shape, and organization of adult cells.
Disordered growth; shape and size of cell altered.
May resolve if stimulus/cause is eliminated
May be premalignant.
Cells - abnormal size, enlarged nuclei, hyper plastic, disorganized laters.
Carcinoma in situ
Severe epithelial dysplasia involving full thickness of epithelium.
invasion of underlying CT.
Most severe form of epithelial dysplasia
Rare or no mitotic figures
Well-differentiated/resemble normal cells
Malignant tumors (cancer)
Invades/spreads = metastasis
Poorly to well differentiated, changed cells
Lack contact inhibition
Squamous cell carcinoma
Basal cell carcinoma
Salivary gland tumors
Adenoma (Pleomorphic adenoma)
Adenocarcinoma (adenoid cystic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma)
Odontoma (compound, complex)
Soft tissue tumors
Granular cell tumor
Melanocytic nevus (nevi)
(Most pigmented lesions in the oral cavity are
Bone and cartilage tumors
Blood and blood-forming tissue tumors
Benign tumor os squamous epithelium.
Keratotic or normal color
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Malignant tumor os squamous epithelium
Most common primary malignancy of the oral cavity (floor of mouth, lateral tongue border)
Exophytic, ulcerative mass
Invasion of epithelial tumor cells through basement membrane into CT
From tobacco use, sun exposure, alcohol use, HPV.
Prognosis: depends on size, location, metastasis
Tx: surgical excision, radiation, chemotherapy
Form of SSC, better prognosis.
pebbly white/red surface + keratin
Basement membrane *NOT* invaded, does
ent membrane *NOT* invaded, does *NOT* usually metastasize.
Basal Cell Carcinoma
Malignant skin tumor of epithelium.
Non-healing ulcer of the skin,
rolled borders, pearly appearance
Prognosis: OK, locally invasive, rarely metastasizes
Benign salivary gland tumor.
Most common salivary gland tumor
Epithelial + CT (mixed)
Parotid gland + palate
Slowly enlarging, painless dome-shaped mass.
Malignant tumor of salivary gland
Adenoid cystic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma
Parotid gland, palate
Slowly enlarging, possibly painful
Prognosis: Good/fair if no metastasis, poor if metastasis to lymph nodes
Tx: surgical excision, possible radiation, follow-ups
Benign, slow growing, locally invasive odontogenic tumor.
Most common in mandible
Unencapsulated tumor, infiltrates surrounding tissue
Extensive damage or death
Multilocular, soap-bubble or honeycomb radiolucency
Benign, often painful
lesion fused to tooth root.
Well-defined radiopaque mass contiguous with root
root of tooth, cause bone expansion
Tx: removal of tumor + tooth
Most common odontogenic tumor
Benign, composed of mature enamel, dentin, cementum, pulp.
Mostly adolescents/young adults
: cluster of many small teeth surrounded by radiolucent halo.
: radiopaque mass surrounded by
Failure of a permanent tooth to erupt
Benign tumor of
Yellowish mass covered by thin epithelium, delicate pattern of blood vessels
Bengin tumors derived from
Derive from Schwann cells
(CT surrounding nerve)
Von Recklinghausen disease
Granular Cell Tumor
Benign tumor composed of large cells with granular cytoplasm
Tongue most common intra-oral site
congenital epulis of the newborn
; present at birth.
Sessile or pedunculate mass of gingival
Most common site:
Maxillary anterior gingiva of girls
Benign tumor of a striated muscle
Tongue most common intra oral site
Malignant tumor of a striated nuscle
Most common malignant soft tissue tumor of head + neck in children
Agressive, poor prognosis.
Benign tumor of smooth muscle
Malignant tumor of smooth muscle
Benign propliferation of capillaries (blood vessels)
, may resolve or enlarge
Tx: surgery or injection of sclerosing solution
Benign tumor composed of
; most present at birth.
Most common intraoral location: tongue
(may lead to macroglossia)
Malignant vascular tumor
Aggressive form associated with
Purplish tumors of hard palate + gingiva
Melanocytic Nevus (nevi)
Benign tumor of
Intraoral nevi =
tan-brown-purple macules or papule
Most common = hard palate, buccal mucosa
Tx: surgery + biopsy if unknown cause
Malignant tumor of melanocytes
ALL MELANOMAS ARE MALIGNANT
On skin, caused by
Palate + maxillary gingiva most common
Aggressive, poor prognosis
Tx: surgery + chemo
Benign lesion of compact bone
Nodular growths of normal compact bone, commonly on buccal surfaces of max/molar regions.
Benign, asymptomatic tumor of normal, mature bone.
Slow growing, sharply defined radiopaque area. May cause bone expansion
Malignant tumor of bone-forming tissue.
Most common primary malignant tumor of bone <40 yrs old
Diffuse, painful swelling.
Toothache or mobility, parathesia of the lip (mandible).
Radiopaque to radiolucent, asymmetrical widening of PDL,
Poor prognosis (20% 5 year survival rate)
Tx: chemo, surgery
Benign tumor of cartilage
Malignant tumor of cartilage
with poor prognosis (30% 5-year survival rate)
Tx: wide surgical excision, chemo not effective
Overproduction of immature/atypical WBC's
Normal marrow replaced by a proliferation of abnormal WBC's that appear in blood + tissues.
Acute = most common in young adults
Chronic = most common in middle aged adults
Monocytic leukemia = most commonly has oral manifestations, includes gingival enlargement + bleeding
chemo, radiation + corticosteroids
Malignant tumor of lymphoid tissue based on microscopic appearance.
Gradual enlargement in lymph nodes, most commonly in tonsillar area intramurally.
Tx: radiation, chemo, surgery
Malignant proliferation of plasma cells. Produce of excess amount of immature immunoglobulins
Destructive bone lesions
Bone pain, swelling, bone fracture risks.
Produce large amount of immunoglobulins.
Bence Jones proteins in urine
(18% 5 year survival)
Death result of infection following kidney failure
Tx: chemo + radiation
Change in cell to an immature or undifferentiated state.
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