AP World History Vocabulary
Terms in this set (168)
Old Stone Age, a long period of human development before the development of agriculture.
social system in which the breeding and herding of domestic animals is a major form of production for good and other purposes
late phase of Stone Age, advanced stone tools used
series of migrations of the Bantu people from the Congo area to present day Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania,
region in West Asia situated within the Tigris-Euphrates river system
Sophisticated law code associated with the Babylonian king Hammurabi
technique or science of working or heating metals into tools
A system of society or government in which the father or eldest male is head of the family and descent is traced through the male line
Ancient Semitic people living in the Eastern Mediterranean, responsible for creating an alphabet that has influenced many modern day alphabets
Indus River Valley Civilization
Civilization along one of the longest rivers in South Asia
A Hindu social class system that controlled every aspect of daily life
Yellow River Valley
Cradle of Chinese civilization, along one of the longest rivers in East Asia
Mandate of Heaven
Chinese belief that the emperors ruled through the mandate, or approval, of heaven contingent on their ability to look after the welfare of the population
Warring States Period
the period from 475 BC until the unification of China under the Qin dynasty, characterized by lack of centralized government in China. It followed the Zhou dynasty.
One of the earliest known major civilization in Mexico
Series on wars between Greece and Persia
Monotheistic religion; influenced future religions like Judaism, Islam, and Christianity
A system of thought based on the teachings that turned into the ruling ideology of the Chinese state, involves ancestor reverence and a profound human-centered religiousness
Philosophy that teaches that everything should be left to the natural order; rejects many of the Confucian ideas but coexisted with Confucianism in China
A Chinese philosophy that argued that people were by nature evil and would follow the correct path if coerced by laws
an Indian religion that stresses extreme simplicity and non violence towards all living creatures
Religion, based on Four Noble Truths, associated with Siddhartha Gautama; its adherents desired to eliminate all distracting passion and reach nirvana.
Main religion in India,emphasizes reincarnation and the desire to end the cycle and death and reincarnation
ancient Greek city state
Greek city state, known for its emphasis on military service and strength
Greek city state, birthplace of democracy
relating to Greek history, language, and culture from the death of Alexander the Great to the defeat of Cleopatra and Mark Antony
Greek philosopher, father of western philosophy
Greek philosopher and scientists, student of socrates
Roman military general and politician, assassinated by a group of nobles
Religion based on the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth
Network of trading routes connecting East and West
Laws developed under Justinian, the Byzantine Emperor
a triangular sail, made sailing in the wind easier
ship of small to moderate size used in W Indian Ocean; triangular sail and sewn timber hull
Navigational Tool, indicates direction of travel
Monotheistic religion announced by the prophet Muhammad; influenced by Judaism and Christianity
Indian Ocean Trade Network
Trade network throughout the Indian Ocean, connected places like India, China, East Africa and the Middle East
Philosophy that attempted to merge certain basic elements of Confucian and Buddhist thought
A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to a king in return for loyalty and military service
Holy Roman Empire
Multi ethnic group of territories in central Europe during the Middle Ages, first emperor was Charlemagne
A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to a king in return for loyalty and military service
Central Asian group, created a largest land based empire through brutal conquest and military warfare.
Moroccan traveler, made the pilgrimage to Mecca and helped spread Islam throughout Africa
Italian merchant whose accounts of his travels to China and other lands became legendary
(1095-1204) Armed pilgrimages to the Holy Land by Christians determined to recover Jerusalem from Muslim rule. The Crusades brought an end to western Europe's centuries of intellectual and cultural isolation.
Central American society, predates the Aztecs
Central American empire constructed by the Mexica and expanded greatly during the 15th century
Economic policy common to many absolute monarchies. Government control of foreign trade is of paramount importance for ensuring the military security of the country. In particular, it demands a positive balance of trade and desires new sources of gold and silver bullion, thus fueling more colonialism.
Trading Post Empire
First used by the Portuguese to control trade routes by forcing merchants to pay taxes in trading ports
Joint Stock Company
A business, often backed by a government charter, that sold shares to individuals to raise money for its trading enterprises and to spread the risks (and profits) among many investors.
The spread of ideas, objects, or traits from one culture to another
Chinese explorer who traveled throughout the Indian Ocean
A period in European history where ancient Greek and Roman art and culture was revived
Deadly disease that spread through Europe, believed to be brought to Europe by traders from Asia
trade route that traveled across the Sahara desert
Chinese sailing ship
Indian syncretic religion that combines elements of Hinduism and Buddhism
European fast sailing ship
An exchange of goods, ideas and skills from the Old World (Europe, Asia and Africa) to the New World (North and South America) and vice versa.
A labor system set up by the Spanish government where Spanish colonists could work the native Americans on their land while compensating them and agreeing to educate some of them and teach them about Christianity
a large estate or plantation with a dwelling house found in Spanish America
Labor source for plantations; wealthy planters would pay the laboring poor to sell a portion of their working lives in exchange for passage
Author of the 95 thesis, began the protestant reformation by protesting against the Catholic church
16th century, European movement where religious figures broke away from the Catholic church
Machine used to mass produce text, responsible for increasing literacy rates and spreading information at a faster rate
Started in the 1500's, that brought about major advancements in math, physics, astronomy, and biology
the process of change from an agrarian society to one dominated by industry and machine manufacturing
Method of manufacturing using machines and division of labor
Intellectual and philosophical movement in Europe that emphasized natural rights, reason, and changes in government to meet the needs of the people
successful anti-slavery and anti-colonial revolt led by self-liberated slaves against French colonial rule
Leader of the revolutions that took place in Latin America
Extreme pride in ones country or advocacy of political independence
Political view that emphasizes liberty and equality, civil rights
Political view that holds that society changes slowly overtime against rapid change
Political theory that advocates that the community should own he means of production
Philosophy that states means of production should be owned by the working class. Violent revolution is needed to destroy the bourgeois and create a new order led by the Proletariat
Attempt to apply Darwin's "survival of the fittest" to social and political realm. Used to justify the war and the conquering of "weaker" nations
Scramble for Africa
Period between 1875 and 1900 where European powers sought to colonize as much of Africa as possible
Indian Revolt, 1857
unsuccessful rebellion of North and Central India by a large portion of the Bengal Army and civil population against British rule
"White Man's Burden"
A poem by Rudyard Kipling that states it is the white mans job or duty to civilize the colonies in Africa and Asia
Organization formed by the Third Estate during the French Revolution with the goal of creating a constitution
Period of social and political change to took place in France from 1789 to about 1799, resulted in the overthrow of the monarchy
Indian National Congress
Indian political party founded in 1885, worked to gain independence from Great Britain
King of Belgium, known for colonizing the Congo and allowing brutal exploration
Series of wars between 1839 and 1860 between Great Britain and China over the sale of Opium in China. Resulted in China being forced to sign a number of unequal treaties
Meeting organized by German chancellor Otto von Bismarck in 1884-1885 that provided the justification for European colonization of Africa
Large rebellion that took place in 1850 in China over the increasing poverty and discontent among the Chinese peasantry
Chinese attempt to blend Chinese cultural traditions with European industrial technology
Sphere of Influence
An area in which another country has economic power, an example is the European control of Chinese ports
Violent anti-foreign, anti-colonial uprising that took place in China between 1899 and 1901
Seneca Falls Convention
First women's rights convention, took place in New York in 1848
restoration of imperial rule in 1868 in Japan, focused on western reforms to strengthen Japan
Armed struggle from 1910 to 1920 in Mexico that resulted in the end of a dictator ship and the establishment of a constitutional republic.
Paris Peace Conference
Meeting of various nations after WWI to decide how to set peace terms for the Central Powers
Campaign of extermination undertaken by the Ottomans against two million Armenians living in Ottoman territory during World War I.
Treaty of Versailles
1919 treaty between Entente Powers and Germany after WWI, blamed the war on Germany and applied harsh reparations
League of Nations
Forerunner of the United Nations, the dream of American president Woodrow Wilson, although its potential was severely limited by the refusal of the United States to join.
severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States
Time period in Russia between 1917 and 1918 which saw the abdication of Czar Nicholas and the establishment of the Communist party led by Lenin
System that developed in the wake of World War I when the former colonies ended up mandates under European control
Series of programs put into place by FDR in the U.S. to establish public works projects, financial reforms and government regulation after the Great Depression
Political ideology used in Italy under Mussolini, a form of totalitarian government
Leader of the fascist party in Italy and and Prime Minister of Italy during WWII
Leader of the Nazi party in Germany and Fuehrer during WWII
Stalin's Five Year Plan
Economic goals implemented between 1928 and 1932 in Russia with the goal of industrial and economic advancement
Chinese communist revolutionary leader and leader of China
Leader of the non-violence movement in India which sought to gain independence for India from British rule
Neutrality pact between Stalin and Hitler
Staged event in which Japanese military members destroyed their own railroad track in Manchuria in order to provide justification for an invasion of China
Rape of Nanjing
Japanese conquest and destruction of the Chinese city of Nanjing in the 1930's
Genocide during WWII that targeting Jews in Germany
Successor to the League of Nations, an organization of nations with the goal of finding solution to global issues
Conflict or rivalry between U.S. and Soviet Union that included their allies
Name given to the boundary dividing Europe into Soviet/communist block and Western capitalist nations
1947 U.S. Policy that states the country would intervene in foreign nations to stop the spread of communism
U.S. Plan that offered financial aid to all European states that suffered from WWII
North Atlantic Treaty Organization, established by the U.S. in 1949, military alliance against Soviet expansion
military alliance formed by Soviet bloc nations in 1955 in response to rearmament of West Germany and its inclusion in NATO
Movement to increase agricultural production in countries like India
U.S. Civil Rights Act of 1965
Laws passed by President Johnson in order to overcome barriers that prevented African Americans from voting
South African system of "separateness" that was implemented in 1948 and that maintained the black majority in a position of political, social, and economic subordination.
process by which former colonies achieved their independence from European powers
national movement of the Jewish people that supports the re-establishment of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel
Meetings between nations to solve major problems between France and the Vietnamese nationalists. Resulted in the Geneva Accords
Movement that seeks to unite the indigenous people of Africa and create solidarity in Africa
idea of the unification of the Muslim countries of North Africa and West Asia, Arab nationalism
Events leading to the overthrow of Iranian leader Pahlavi
the breaking down of traditional boundaries in the face of increasingly global financial and cultural trends
a change in global or regional climate patterns
Mass slaughter of Tutsi's in Rwanda. Led by the Hutu people
Cold War, nations that were under the influence of the Soviet Union and Communism
Political philosophy that stressed the divine right theory of kingship: the French king Louis XIV was the classic example.
An economic system with origins in early modern Europe in which private parties make their goods and services available on a free market.
changeover from food gathering to food production that occurred between ca. 8000 and 2000 B.C.E.
Combination of different religions, cultures, or schools of thought, the merging of different inflectional varieties of a word during the development of a language
The Tigris and Euphrates Rivers gave life to the first known agricultural villages in this area about 10,000 years ago and the first known cities about 5,000 years ago. Includes Mesopotamia, Palestine, and the Nile.
When colonists were allowed to use Indians for forced labor in colonial South America as a form of taxation. The Inca had previously used a similar practice.
Ruler of Mali who made a pilgrimage from Egypt to Mecca
In Confucian thought, one of the virtues to be cultivated, a love and respect for one's parents and ancestors
a means of supplying land with water
Specialization of Labor
To train or specialize people in certain areas of work so that people can accomplish tasks quicker
Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life.
a set of rules or principles or laws (especially written ones)
Living in a religious community apart from secular society and adhering to a rule stipulating chastity, obedience, and poverty.
Office established in succession to the Prophet Muhammad, to rule the Islamic empire; also the name of that empire.
A system in which defeated peoples were forced to pay a tax in the form of goods and labor. This forced transfer of food, cloth, and other goods subsidized the development of large cities
British and French policy in the 1930's that tried to maintain peace in Europe in the face of German aggression by making concessions
Hindu caste of priests
Islamic leader after the death of Muhammad
16th century Catholic attempts to cure internal ills and confront Protestantism.
gardens used by Aztecs in which fertile ground from lake bottoms was dredged and built up into small plots for farming
Civil Service Exam
tests given at the district, provincial, and metropolitan levels that determined entry into the Chinese civil service during the Ming and Qing dynasties
Spanish adventurers such as Cortez and Pizarro who conquered Central and South America in the 16th Century
Goal of the Truman Doctrine, stop or contain the spread of Communism
People born in the Americas of Spanish or Portuguese ancestry
powerful territorial lords in early modern Japan
A reduction in cold war tension between the U.S. and Soviet Union from 1969-1975
a system of government used by Europeans towards their colonies. Officials were sent from the European nation to rule over the colony
a system of government used by Europeans towards their colonies. It allowed local leaders to remain in place under British rule
Chinese custom of applying tight binding to the feet of young girls to modify the shape of their feet. It was practiced in China from the Song dynasty until the early 20th century, bound feet were considered a status symbol as well as a mark of beauty
Russian term meaning openness, introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev in 1985 to describe the process of opening of Soviet society
Good Neighbor Policy
U.S. foreign policy under FDR, emphasized cooperation and trade rather than military force in Latin America
Great Leap Forward
Economic and social program in China under Mao. Attempt to address the problems with China's industrial and agricultural sectors.
A forgiveness of sins, sold by the Catholic church, one of the causes of Martin Luthers unhappiness with the church
Belief that the government should not be involved in a free market
Greek philosopher, student of Socrates, author of the allegory of the cave
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