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Nutrition Exam 2
Terms in this set (51)
What waist circumference in women indicates an increased risk of health problems? In men?
Women- greater than 35 in
Men- greater than 40 in
What are the components of fitness?
Cardiorespiratory, Strength, and Flexibility
What is a "normal" BMI (body mass index)?
In class which simple technique was listed as a way to double the rate of weight loss?
Keeping Food Records
What does indirect calorimetry measure?
Oxygen consumed and carbon dioxide produced
Why is the resting metabolic rate slightly higher than the basal metabolic rate?
Not as strict on fasting and activity
What happens to antidiuretic hormone production with alcohol intake and what can this lead to?
Is inhibited by alcohol intake and can lead to dehydration
Where does metabolism of alcohol begin?
Stomach and the Liver
Ketone bodies are produced in significant quantities and used by the brain for energy after a person has been fasting for a while (around 24-48 hours). Ketone bodies are made from two molecules of what?
What was said in class to be the best indicator of cardiorespiratory fitness?
Where is lipoprotein lipase found?
Found on the lining of the blood vessels (endothelium)
Which weight loss surgery is no longer performed today because of the severe complications it can cause?
In what eating disorder is the patient likely to be significantly underweight?
What percent of adults in the United States are either overweight or obese?
What can super strict dieting and extreme exercise do to a person's metabolic rate?
Slow down the metabolic rate
What compound helps regenerate ATP during a short bout of intense activity (e.g. 50 meter sprint)?
When stimulated, what neurons located in the hypothalamus of the brain release factors that lead to reduced appetite?
What is "NEAT"?
Non-exercise activity thermogenesis
Which of the following would be most effective in promoting weight loss?
eating more foods with low energy density.
Calorie intake should be reduced by about how much per day in order to lose one pound of fat per week?
500 Calories per day
In the case of starvation, the body uses what to make glucose?
Why do women readily store fat around the hips, buttocks and thighs, whereas men readily store fat around the abdomen?
LPL is higher in the breast hips and thighs in women
Why do men break down alcohol faster than women?
Men have higher levels of alcohol dehydrogenase than women
Leptin, the substance which affects appetite and energy expenditure, comes from what part of the body?
Can fatty acids be turned into glucose?
The extensive use of NAD+ for alcohol metabolism eventually makes the TCA cycle unable to process ______________, which then gets converted to fat and can be stored in the liver as "ectopic fat."
Do viruses potentially have any role in the development of obesity?
Is spot reducing (reducing fat from a specific place on your body) possible?
What are pathways your body uses to get ATP?
Creatin Phosphate, Glycolysis, TCA Cycle, Electron Transport Chain
How would being deficient in the hormone leptin affect body weight?
What is satiation?
Satiation- Hunger diminishing as you eat
What is satiety?
Satiety- A feeling that continues to suppress hunger between meals
What are possible fates of acetyl CoA?
Kreb's cycle, ketone bodies, and TCA cycle
What is the relationship between brown adipose tissue and body weight?
Brown adipose tissue releases energy as heat therefore animals and people with higher amounts of BAT resist weight gain
What is the Cori Cycle?
Under anaerobic conditions, lactic acid produced in muscles travels to the liver and is converted back into glucose
Aerobic metabolism of one molecule of glucose yields how many ATP?
A lot about 30-32 ATP
Sleep deprivation can lead to increased levels of what hormone(s)?
When are ketones formed?
When glucose is not available in adequate amounts
What can be the results of chronic excessive alcohol consumption?
Death, unruly behavior, accidents or fatalities, physical or verbal assault, sexual assault, suicide and homicide
Excess fat stored where has the least negative impact on disease risk?
The female athlete triad consists of what three factors?
Eating disorder, Amenorrhea, and Osteoporosis
GLP-1 and PYY are secreted from where after a meal and help to decrease appetite?
Secreted by intestinal cells
Are leptin injections a helpful treatment in most cases of human obesity?
About what percent of people who lose weight gain it back?
Which type of athlete needs more protein per kilogram?
Strength or Speed Athletes
How is carbohydrate loading best done?
3-4 days before an event
"NEAT" may be able to increase energy expenditure by how many calories per day?
500 calories per day
What would the eating pattern of someone with anorexia nervosa look like?
Not eating enough, eating very little or skipping meals
Sweating is the body's way of getting rid of excess what?
Does BMI give a reliable estimate of a person's level of fatness?
What habits have been shown to help someone who has lost weight keep it off?
-Eat a reduced calorie, low-fat diet
-Eat breakfast almost every day
-Monitor their weight regularly
-Participate in a high level of physical activity (90% exercise about 1 hour per day)
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