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PSC 211- Exam 2
Terms in this set (41)
If you categorize humans into large groups based on physical characteristics such as facial features and hair texture, you are relying on which form of categorization?
A. political identity
C. class- consciousness
Which of the following is an example of class- consciousness among citizens?
A. religious groups within a state demanding the right to form a political party that represents their beliefs in government
B. workers at a factory organizing to form a labor union to fight for higher wages after reading about record profits reaped by the owners
C. wealthy students at a private university mobilizing to demand lower tuition rates and reduced student fees
D. the government passing a law that bans the use of specific types of clothing at public schools across the country
What differentiates Marxist theories of political identity from those articulated by Max Weber?
A. in Weber's theory identity has a much broader conception and can be based on a multiplicity of factors, whereas Marxist theories of identity are much more narrowly constructed
B. in Marx's theory political identity is driven by multiple factors beyond the control of citizens, in contrast to Weber's theory in which a singular class- consciousness emerged in society
C. Marx's theory suggests that political cleavages mobilize along noneconomic status group lines, while Weber's work suggests that political cleavages form along key class distinctions
D. Marx suggested that political identity is only marginally important in explaining political outcomes, whereas Weber theorized that political identity is the core predictor of political behavior
If you believe that identity is something that you are born with, you tend to support _________
B. class- consciousness
Why would the argument made by Samuel Huntington about future global conflicts be characterized as primordialist?
A. At its core is the belief that political identities are the product of human construction and that competing identities will come into conflict
B. At its core an insistence that individuals are born with specific sets of characteristics that will inevitably clash with others
C. At its core is the claim that the political identities of individuals are the product of ethnic origins and as such will clash with other ethnic groups
D. At its core is the assumption that individuals have fundamental economic identities and that this will inevitably lead to class conflict
Which of the following is the strongest critique of Huntington's argument about political identities?
A. Huntington's thesis cannot adequately explain conflicts between states of the same civilization, nor can it explain civili wars within states
B. Huntington's thesis relies on the politicization of class identities and consequently has not been able to predict conflict within the capitalist world
C. Huntington's thesis incorrectly stereotypes all three of the world;s monotheistic religions and as such is simple- minded and politically incorrect
D. Huntington's thesis relies on a narrow definition of identity that cannot be broadly applies to a range of different cases
What does the constructivist approach to identity assume?
A. That identities are dynamic and eternal
B. That identities are fluid and can change
C. That identities are static and irrelevant
D. That identities are natural and enduring
What is a key way that governments have sought to construct nation identities?
A. forced religions
B. mass education
C. rapid industrialization
D. class conflict
What differentiates how Americans and Brazilians understand race in their societies?
A. Americans have a broad construction of racial categories that make racial lines very fluid, which provides more points of conflict than exist within Brazilian politics
B. Americans employ a very narrow definition of who is "white" while Brazilians have a much broader category, making race much less politically salient in Brazil
C. Brazilians have deep racial divisions stemming from their country's history of slavery, while the United Sates has effectively transformed the racial conflicts stemming from its racial history
D. Brazilians have much more rigid racial identities than Americans, making politics more likely to fracture along racial lines in Brazil than in the United States.
If you have developed _______, you have an awareness of being a member of a specific economic group
A. primordial awareness
B. class- consciousness
C. political identity
D. cultural enlightnment
In terms of identity, what distinguishes the proletariat from the bourgeoisie?
A. The bourgeoisie rely on the growing levels of class- consciousness among the proletariat to maintain their control over society
B. The bourgeoisie mobilized specifically to protect the economic interests of the emerging middle class in European society
C. The proletariat rely on bonds of kinship to mobilize their group members to effect political change in society
D. The proletariat have an emerging class- consciousness highlighting their exploitation and their economic interests
Why type of bonds connects people through blood, marriage, or other family relations?
In what ways does a primordialist explanation of the politicization of identity differ from a constructivist explanation?
A. Primordial explanations emphasize the effects of changing ideas about group membership as a source of instability within the collective identity of the state, while constructivist explanations emphasize changing social contexts
B. Primordial explanations emphasize how changing economic conditions within the state threaten the ruling classes and their interests, while constructivist explanations focus on class interests
C. Primordial explanation emphasize the social context surrounding identity creation as a source of instability and threat to a collective identity, while constructivist explanations focus on perceived threats
D. Primordial explanations emphasize a perceived threat to a group's ability to practice its collective identity and accompanying traditions, while constructivist explanations emphasize social context
If you were using Samuel Huntington's arguments to explain global conflict, which of the following would you deploy as evidence to support your claim?
A. The international efforts to revive the system of global free trade following the collapse of the world economy in 2008
B. The spread of the internal conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo to neighboring states within similar tribal groupings
C. The vote by the citizens of the United Kingdom to exit the European Union following the 2016 U.S. election
D. The intensification of conflict between Islamic and Non- Islamic states in the aftermath of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union
Which of the following is a shortcoming of primordialist explanations of identity?
A. It cannot effectively explain the politicization of identity
B. It cannot effectively explain the mobilization of identity
C. It cannot adequately explain why identities change over time
D. It cannot easily explain why identities are formed
Which of the following actions would best illustrate a constructivist understanding of political identity?
A. The government of a newly independent state engaging in the centralizations and standardization of educational policies
B. The government of a newly independent state engaging in forced relocation of ethnic minorities to achieve social stability
C. The government of a newly independent state engaging in rapid industrialization to reduce income inequalities among groups
D. The government of a newly independent state calling on the historical sacrifices of kinship to rally citizens to action
What does constructivism rely on when assessing the mobilization of political identity within a country?
A. class- consciousness
B. education levels
C. bonds of kinship
D. social context
As the leader of a newly independent nation, which of the following would be the most effective step toward building a new national identity for your country?
A. Promote rapid economic development to eliminate class- consciousness
B. Promote regionalism to enhance local control over politics and policies
C. Promote mass literacy in order to reduce the isolation of cultural "islands"
D. Promote democratic policies to reduce the levels of cultural isolationism
What is the relationship between social context and political identity in Brazil?
A. Brazilian leaders were faced with a majority black population and deliberately constructed multiple racial categories to encourage conflict among those groups
B. Brazilian leaders faced a population that was majority black and to prevent a backlash against policies worked to develop an identity that was inclusive
C. Brazilian leaders were faced with a deeply divided class- based society and as such constructed a political identity of equality and egalitarianism
D. Brazilian leaders were faced with a small, marginalized black population and as such created broad economic policies to make all Brazilians better off
With respect to religious beliefs, what does democracy require?
Why can we doubt that a connection exists between democracy and Christianity?
A> Many non- democratic Christian states exist in the world
B. Some of the most aggressive democracies are Christian states
C. No non- Christian state has ever become democratic
D. All of the world's democratic states are Christian states
If you were a member of a religious group that found itself on the losing end of a policy decision, which of the following actions that you could undertake would illustrate the tension that exists between religion and democracy?
A. You choose to mobilize others with similar beliefs in an effort to subvert the legitimacy and authority of the state
B. You choose to moderate your religious views as they relate to the policy in question and accept the policy outcome
C. You choose to mobilize other with similar interests to stage a march on the nation's capital to demand policy change
D. You choose to become more strident in the advocacy of your religious beliefs and form a political party to win power in government
Countries that support a diversity of religious traditions practice ____________
A. cultural diversity
B. class- consciousness
C. religious pluralism
D. political equality
How did the rise of Protestantism contribute to the rise of democracy in the United States?
A. The religious teachings of Protestant faiths specifically advocate for the elimination of religious pluralism within society, helping to establish democratic governments
B. The political activism of emigrants to the United States led to the assimilation of indigenous peoples into the core values of liberty and freedom
C. The rise of Protestantism in the United States led to a closer connection between religion and government that has founded a range of moral policy choices
D. The political activism of religious emigrants to the United States helped establish the principle of voluntary association existing outside of state control
Which of the following helps explain why we associate Catholicism with democratic government?
A. The Catholic Church's unconditional support for human rights that emerged following WW1
B. The Catholic Church's decision to relinquish any influence over government after the Second Vatican Council
C. The changing Catholic doctrines that emerged following the Second Vatican Council
D. The historical acceptance of religious pluralism found in long- standing Catholic doctrine
The body of religious law that governs the public and private lives of individuals in Islamic states is known as ___________
A. The Koran
According to the text, which of the following is a political consequence of the subordination of women in some Islamic countries?
A. The dominance of men leads to a respect for hierarchical authority that may support non-democratic rule
B. The dominance of men leads to respect for pluralistic authority that may support non- democratic rule
C. The dominance of men leads to a resource that may support non- democratic rule
D. The dominance of men leafs to a subversion of hierarchical authority that may support non- democratic rule
What is the relationship between the status of women in the Arab world and democracy?
A. The practices of religious- based gender discrimination have no effect on the factors considered critical to the emergence of democracy in the Arab world
B. Replacing male leaders with female leaders in the Arab world will lead to the secularization of society and the creation of democratic institutions, beliefs, and policies
C. The development of democracy in the Arab world can only be achieved through the secularization of society and the removal of religious- based gender discrimination
D. It is possible that long- standing practices of gender discrimination in the Arab world can deter the development of democracy, but gender subordination is not solely drive by religious identity
Societies experiencing __________ are witnessing a gradual decline in the importance of religion
Which of the following would you be most likely to find in a country that is highly secular?
A. citizens who are reluctant to affirm simple differences between good and evil
B. citizens who emphasize hard work over leisure time
C. citizens who support hierarchical authority relations
D. citizens who are overwhelmingly nationalistic in their political outlook
In which of the following ways are modernization, secularization, and democratization connected?
A. As societies become economically modern, they may experience rapid political changes that lead the ruling class to become more supportive of democracy if modernization is accompanied by equitable growth
B. As societies become economically modern, they will move toward religious traditions that are moe supportive of democracy, especially if modernization growth is highly equitable
C. As societies become economically modern, they may experience cultural changes that are more supportive of democracy if modernization is accompanied by equitable growth
D. As societies become economically modern, citizens abandon commitments to rational authority, which creates space for the development of modern democratic institutions
Which of the following statements regarding Muslim countries and democracy is accurate?
A. No predominantly Muslim countries in the world are classified as "free" by Freedom House
B. There are more Muslim countries in the world classified as "free" than as "partially free" by Freedom House
C. Nearly all predominantly Muslim countries in the world are classified as "partially free" or "not free" by Freedom House
D. A minority of predominantly Muslim countries in the world are classified as "not free" by Freedom House
Which of the following theories would argues that democracy is inherent in the DNA of Protestantism?
A. secularization theories
B. constructivist theories
C. modernization theories
D. primodialist theories
As a student of comparative politics, which of the following should cause you to question the primordial connection between Protestantism and democracy?
A. Protestantism is a minority religion in the world, while democracies constitute a majority of contemporary governments
B. Protestantism has its roots in the Eastern Orthodox traditions, and most contemporary Eastern Orthodox societies are not democratic
C. There is an apparent lack of connection between the spread of Protestantism and democracy in the contemporary world
D. Protestantism is spreading more quickly in poorer countries than in wealthy ones in contemporary society
Which of the following would support a primordialist claim related to Christianity and democracy?
A. Researchers would need to see Christianity spreading at the same time that a country underwent economic modernization
B. Researched would have to see Christianity spread to countries that has experienced rapid economic modernization
C. Researches would have to see Christian leaders making deliberate changes to church doctrine to spread Christian faith
D. Researches would have to see consistent support for democracy in areas where Christianity dominates
Actions taken by the United States and other powers to retain access to valuable natural resources and prevent regional conflicts are examples of __________
Which of the following best illustrates a consequence of the resource curse in global politics?
A. the restrictions on political participation in Saudi Arabia
B. the Communist Revolution in China under Mao
C. the globalization of the U.S. economy
D. the modernization of the Russian state
What does the resource curse suggest to researchers in comparative politics?
A. that states that are resource- rich will be in constant political turmoil due to outside threats of invasion
B. that a reliance on a single natural resource for economic development has political consequences for the state
C. that states with abundant natural resources will never become democratic or politically successful
D. that states without a core natural resource to export on the world market can never become democratic
Why does secularization matter with respect to a democratic transition?
A. Secularization can trigger a change in cultural values within a state that will make society more likely to support democratic institutions and processes
B. Secularization will prompt non- elected leaders to endorse democratic processes in order to ensure the support of religious and economic leaders in the state
C. Secularization can spark economic modernization policies that reduce levels of societal inequity, making democracy more likely
D. Secularization will lead to a rejection of legal- rational forms of authority, creating spaces for the development of democracy
As the leader of a state, which of the following paths would you try to pursue if you wanted to increase the odds of democratization in your country?
A. economic development policies that protect religious institutions in order to ensure that support of religious leaders during a democratic transition to a secular society
B. economic development policies that promote rapid but uneven economic growth to enhance the desire of the powerful to democratize
C. economic development policies that promote ethnic identities in order to mobilize groups to contribute to sustained, equitable economic growth within society
D. economic development policies that promote sustained, equitable economic growth to enhance the secularization of society
Which of the following statements best characterizes the relationship between economic modernization and democracy in Muslim countries?
A. Many Muslim states have not experience economic development in a way that transformed cultural values to such an extent that they are supportive of democratic institutions and processes
B. Many Muslim states have experienced rapid economic development that led to an unstable transformation of cultural values, prompting backsliding to non- democratic institutions
C. Many Muslim states experienced economic development in a way that was equitable and as such led to secularization of society with cultural values that support democracy
D. Many Muslim states experienced secularization before modernization, making a complete cultural transformation to democratic values nearly impossible
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