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MTRO101 Exam 2 (vocab)
Terms in this set (46)
A misinterpretation of reality by accepting the dominant group's views and not realizing one's situation is the result of exploitation.
Tönnies' depiction of one form of social life as a community, much like that of a small country village, where all share a common view of life.
Tönnies' depiction of another form of social life as an association, much like that of a large city, where people do not necessarily share a common view of life.
Social bonds that are constructed on likeness, on common belief and custom, and on common ritual and symbol.
A complex division of labor, in which many different people specialize in many different occupations and depend on one another to meet various needs.
A social psychological phenomenon that occurs in situations when individuals fail to offer any kind of help to a victim when others are present.
A model constructed from real-world observation that highlights the crucial elements of some social phenomenon.
The culture or way of life of city dwellers.
Places that evolve as unplanned clusters with specialized activities.
Highly educated urban sophisticates who choose to live in the city because of its wide range of activities, experiences, and social contacts.
Migrants, who sustain rural life patterns in the city, cluster in a local area, emphasize traditional religious beliefs and family ties, and display suspicion of outsiders. That area is considered an "ethnic village."
Industrial Location Theory
Explanation that industry would locate where the transportation costs of both raw materials and the final product would be the lowest.
A strategic geographical location that facilitates the concentration of
people and services, especially trade.
A strategic geographic location that facilitates the transfer of goods from one form of transportation to another, such as truck to ship.
A city primarily known for its specialized recreational opportunities, such as beaches, gambling, mineral springs, or skiing.
Administrative or Political City
A city established primarily for governmental purposes, such as a national capital.
Cities in which the physical layout expands outward in all directions from a common center.
Cities in which the physical layout contains straight streets crossing at right angles to create regular city blocks.
A term coined by Robert Park, reflecting his concept about the orderly evolution of urban growth and development.
The ecological process in which one group or activity replaces another in a particular area.
Central Business District
A concentration of commercial activity within a city that includes banking, entertainment, offices, restaurants, retail stores, and public transit.
A subfield of sociology that focuses on urban design, land-use planning, and policy reform to create environmentally sound development.
Interdependent economic enterprises located close to one another that provide some element in the creation and distribution of a product.
Central Place Theory
Christaller's thesis that the more important a city's economic function is to a region, the more its population will increase.
A U.S. Census Bureau population unit of about 4,000 residents who are relatively homogeneous in socioeconomic status and living conditions.
A computer-based methodology to gather, transform, manipulate, and analyze information related to the surface of the Earth.
A reaction against the assumed certainty that rational, objective efforts can explain reality and, instead, an insistence that there are multiple interpretations based on concrete experiences, not abstract principles.
Urban Political Economy
Critical urban sociology perspective; adherents are generally neo-Marxists, but regardless of their ideological orientation, they focus on investment decisions and economic trends that determine a city's fortunes.
Primary Circuit of Capital
Lefebvre's identification of investment to hire workers to manufacture a product to sell at a profit to be used for more investment.
Second Circuit of Capital
Lefebvre's identification of real-estate investment as almost always leading to profit as an important means of acquiring wealth.
The legal right of government to seize private property for public use, provided that the owner receives compensation at fair market value.
What developers, investors, and government consider in terms of the dimensions of size, location, and profit, rather than the ideas of local people.
What individuals who live, work, and play in an area think about their environment.
Mode of Production
The things needed to produce goods and services, such as land, tools, knowledge, wealth, or factories.
Mode of Development
Castells's notion of the processing and transmission of information as the fundamental resource of productivity and power.
The acquisition of a company with assets valued at $1 billion or more by a multibillion-dollar company.
When companies or cities move away from manufacturing as their primary economic activity and evolve into more service-oriented activities.
Streets, walkways, transit lines, canals, and railroads along which the observer moves.
Boundaries, either barriers or seams that exist between two areas.
Medium to large sections of the city, reinforced by physical clues to convey a sense of "being in" them.
Anchor points of strategic activity, such as a major transit station or square.
Physical reference points, including buildings, signs, stores, domes, gas stations, or hills
Individualized constructs of an area based on personal experience, interests, and knowledge of the socially recognized "important areas" of the city.
Places where people gather to socialize with friends or meet new ones, and to enjoy themselves.
The impression that cities convey to the beholder; also called "soul" or "personality."
Any supersized, large house exceeding 4,000 square feet on too small a lot, leaving little room for yard space.
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