HONORS WORLD HISTORY: Module 3 (Africa)
Terms in this set (88)
a West African word for a person who plays music and tells the legends, myths, and stories of a people
At the middle point of the Niger River. Floods almost every year during its wet season. Near the border of the inland delta is the town of Djenne. This area helps people have the resources to survive. The inland Delta provides fishing, water to grow crops, and land for animals to graze.
The Sahel consists of desert and semi-arid land. By 1000 BCE, people had established settlements in the western Sahel. Starting in 400 CE, cities began to appear. Around 500 BCE, the people of the region also learned how to forge iron, and they began making tools and weapons. At some point horses were introduced into the area. The stage was set for conquest and the growth of great civilizations
largest in the world and one of the hottest and driest deserts.
How did trade help lead to the rise of the Sudanic States?
Trade is the real reason for the development and rise of the great West African kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai, and for this reason they are often referred to as the trading states, or trade kingdoms.
a section of coastal western Africa along the Gulf of Guinea corresponding to present-day Côte d'Ivoire; it was named for the large quantities of ivory traded there in pre-colonial times
a section of coastal western Africa along the Gulf of Guinea that corresponds to present-day Ghana
also known as Mandinke, is a large ethnic group in West Africa that became the known as the Mali Empire
the founder of the Mali Empire, organized many of the Mandé chiefs to fight a rival, the Soso Kingdom; reconquered lost Ghana territory and re-established the gold and salt trade.
capital of Mali Empire, near Bure gold fields on the present-day border between Mali and Guinea.
a local merchant class who were all Muslims. There were Dyula merchants during the Ghana Empire, but they rose to their height during the Mali Empire. The Dyula spread throughout the region of West Sudan. They established their own trading settlements and helped spread Islam as well as trade throughout the region.
came to power in 1312 and was a king of Mali
went on pilgrimage to Mecca, brought back an Arab architect, Abu Ishaq al-Sahili, who changed the way the people of Mali built their homes.
a city of central Mali near the Niger River northeast of Bamako, City of The Great Mosque, and a center of learning
What led to the decline of the Mali Empire?
Invaders from outside, civil wars over succession (patrilineal)
Sunni Ali the Great
founder of the Songhai empire, led the Songhai in conquering the cities of Mema and Timbuktu
Early African cultures: Nok
developed along Niger river where it joins Benue river in what is now Nigeria. Existed from 900BCE to 200CE and is known for beautiful figurines made out of clay. Some believe it evolved into the Yoruba civilization because of the styles of art are so similar.
Early African cultures: Djenné-Djeno
located in the inland delta in what is now Mali. It grew from a small settlement founded around 200BCE to a major city by 850CE. Traded for copper, gold, and bronze, made pottery iron tools built circular mud brick buildings. It began to decline 1000 CE abandoned by 1400 CE. After it was abandoned, new city called Djenne was started and became a center for Islamic learning, just like Timbuktu.
Why did western Sahel become an important trading area?
large amounts of gold, which was a world-wide currency
markets that had supplies that traders and travelers needed on their journeys. Middlemen earned profitable trade and kings taxed items for income salt and gold trade across the Sahara
Social and political characteristics of Ghana empire?
Social: used iron for weapons and art; horses for military; animistsists
Political: matrilineal succession
Why was the city of Timbuktu of great importance?
Important in the trans-Saharan trade. A center of learning. Ultimately, scholars from all over the Muslim world came to Timbuktu to study.
How was Songhai similar to other West African civilizations that came before it?
Suffered from many battles over succession, just like Mali. In Songhai, the brothers of the king often tried to depose him; in turn, some kings tried to protect themselves by killing all their brothers.
Songhai class structure?
Kings and Nobility : kings and his family + lower, local nobles
Freemen: citizens--Muslim clerics, craftspeople, griots, and artists.
Slaves and War Captives: either high or low position in society; remained on their land and farmed it because that was how they could best serve the kingdom.
Ghana empire: characteristics
Soninke people; traded gold and salt; Kumbi Saleh was the capitol; matrilineal succession
Mali empire: characteristics
mandinke people; traded gold and salt; great mosque of timbuktu; patrilineal succession; mansa musa was greatest leader; capitol was located at Niani
Songhai empire: characteristics
Songhai people; traded gold and salt; Sunni Ali the Great; patrilineal succession; Gao was capitol
Punt people (D'mt kingdom)
origin of most Eastern and Northern African civilizations; around 2000 BCE, people of the upper Nile and Southwest Asia migrated along coast of Red Sea and settled at Horn of Africa. It blended a pastoral and agricultural lifestyle, farmed, herded livestock; it established D'mt (Da'maat) kingdom, which began to trade with interior Africa and merchants from Arabian Peninsula. 300BCE—D'mt had lost control over port cities that had begun to amass their own wealth and power.
migration from between Niger and Benue valleys, around 2000 BCE, brought with them knowledge of iron-working, agricultural techniques, and culture and language to Central, Southern, and Eastern Africa.
Meroe (Eastern Africa)
590BCE, people from North moved capital farther south to city of Meroe. Their influence declined as nearby city-states gained power. In 4th century CE, they were destroyed by Aksum
Funj (Eastern Africa)
6th century, Axum declined, and 3 new kingdoms arose in Nubia. Byzantines brought Christianity to region, Arabs seized control of them and spread Islam to the area. 1 century later, Funj emerged and defeated Arabs and established African sultanate. Never as stable as other kingdoms. 19th century CE—taken by Egypt.
Axum (Eastern Africa)
1st century CE, Asum became wealthiest Red Sea trade city and most influential market city in Ethiopian coast. 3rd CE, extended power over region and grown to conquer neighboring lands. Its position between African, Asian, and Mediterranean trade routes made it powerful. 4th CE, Missionaries bring Christianity, 320 CE, King Ezana became first Christian king of Africa. Thrived into 6th century CE, when Sassanid Persians overran Arabia and rolled back Axum's influence there. 7th CE—Axum cut off from sea trade by Arabs.
Ethiopia (Eastern Africa)
Agew people emerged and filled vacuum of power of Axum. United Ethiopian areas in 12th and 13th CE. Zagwe emperor Lalibela became known for establishing Christian kindom in 12th century. 1270 CE Shewa ruler Yekuno Amlak led rebellion that established solomonic dynasty that would rule Ethiopia into modern age. King Solomon and Queen of Sheba. Faced threats from Muslims and Portugese and resisted both.
Oromo (Eastern Africa)
pushing out of southern bush country in search of better lands. Oromo began raiding neighboring lands looking for resources in 13th cent. Pushed north and west into area ruled by Zagwe and Solomonids. Great deal of territory by 17th cent. Traded coffee.
Great Zimbabwe (Southern Africa)
Bantu migrations result in growth of interior cities in S Africa, including this one. Traded goods along rivers to cities in Indian coast. Rise in wealth = new elite that ruled from 11th to 15th CE. Relied on cattle herding and agriculture as well. City and kingdom became known for stone architecture and pottery. Declined in 15th CE.
Mwenamutapa (Southern Africa)
dominated lands between Limpopo and Zambezi rivers and controlled trade there, ruled by kinds Mwene Mutapa. Kingdom became knows by same title. Shone people formed kingdom began acquiring power in 14th CE and ruled 3 centuries. Their rise = prince from Great Zimbabwe in search of salt resources. Succumbed to Portugese in 17th CE.
Kongo (Central Africa)
2000 BCE onward, Bantu spread and blended local inhabitants. 1000 CE people south of rainforests not only farmers, but also miners. Specialized in ceramics, patterned textiles, salt. Trade in raffia cloth brought wealth and new class rule kingdom of kongo. Empire with several territories under one rule of Lukeni lua Nimi in 1390 CE. Forged ties with Portuguese through trade and Christianity in 1480.
Lunda and Luba (Central Africa)
traded with Arabs on Indian coast and Portuguese. Survived well into 18th CE
Swahili (South-eastern Africa)
"of the coast" in Arabic. Powerful markets for arab and Indian merchants and native African populations from Bantu. Blending of Bantu language with Arabic resulted in Swahili and region was Swahili coast. Islam becomes predominant. Mogadishu, Mombasa, and Kilwa most prominent cities along coast. 1498 Portuguese conquered the region.
great lakes of Africa-Lake Victoria, Tanganyika, Albert and others. 14th and 15th CE, Tutsi and Maasai came. Kindom rose to control, but smaller kingdoms controlled by this one too such as Buganda and Rwanda; control of rich salt.
What resources helped Africans build the early kingdoms of East, Central, and South Africa?
The waters within and around Africa made possible not only human migration and farming but also trade. These rivers, lakes, seas, and oceans served as major arteries that connected Africans with others.
Through seafaring trade, merchants brought valuable goods that increased the wealth of African peoples who would rise to become kings and emperors. They also brought Christianity, Islam, and their own political interests. Arabs and Persians would help found the city-states of the Swahili Coast, and the Portuguese would prove the first of a series of European invaders that would forever change the face of Africa.
Yikunno-Amlak, possibly a descendent of the Aksum people, founds the Christian Kingdom of Ethiopia. His grandson Amda Seyon would extend the borders of Ethiopia and would demand greater rights for Christians in neighboring Muslim kingdoms such as Egypt
Arab traders found Mombasa
The ruler of the Bantu-speaking Ganda people, who lived along Lake Victoria, centralizes power and begins the kingdom of Buganda.
Examples of social changes?
by 1000 CE, fortified hilltop towns emerged among cattle-herding people whose elites began commanding stone constructions
2000 BCE--Bantu speaking peoples of Niger and Bhenu River valleys migrate into east, central, and s. africa
Examples of political change?
wealth from trade helped an African nobility emerge and establish rule over powerful city-states
Examples of religious change?
4th century: Christian missionaries travel to East Africa. In 1000, Ethiopian king Lalibela built 11 churches
10th century onward: Arab merchants spread Islam along Swahili coast and help establish Muslim sultanate at Kilwa
Examples of economic change?
by 1325, Great Zimbabwe is center of Gold trade
from 1000 onward, cities along swahili coast thrive from trade with Arab, Chinese, Persian, and Indian merchants
Lunda and Luba gain wealth and power through salt trading
Ancient land-bridge between what is now Alaska and Siberia; it was submerged beneath water and the Bering Strait formed
history of the Americas before Columbus landed in 1492
What is a mother culture? What were the mother cultures of the later Aztec, Mayan, and Incan civilizations?
Olmec, Nazca, and other Mesoamerican and Andean cultures including the Zapotec, Chavin, and Moche
a region defined by cultural similarities of indigenous populations and extends from central Mexico through most of Central America. Aztecs and Mayans are most famous in this region but were not first.
The Olmec civilization, social, political, religious, economic
Social: 1200-400BCE, did not leave a rich written record except for glyphs found on stone carvings that let us know they were polytheistic; called Olmecatl (rubber people) because they used rubber trees to make rubber. They were technologically advanced. Massive carved stone heads = portraits of rulers,
La Venta--built in alignment with a major constellation/star; had knowledge in astronomy
Political: had great influence on nearby cultures--this is seen through their artifacts. San Larenzo and La Venta were major towns and are now archeological sites
Economic: vast trading network
Religious: polytheistic, as many as 10 gods in this case
The Zapotec civilization, social, political, religious, economic
Social: developed in Oaxaca, Southern Mexico. Modern form = Mixtec, In 700s BCE, Zapotec construct city at Monte Alban. Included pyramids, tombs, ball field. Inhabitants had a written calendar and language. Most who live in Oaxaca are farmers or craftsmen and speak several dialects of Zapotec
Political: Settlements at Monte Alban flourished from 300 to 900 CE. Largest and most important center in Mesoamerica.
Religious: Original myths and traditions remain to today, but after Spanish conquest, Zapotec practice Roman Catholicism.
Economic: dependence on farming and crafting, possible trade between Olmec and later civilizations
Describe the region of the Andes civilizations
Andes mountains = in modern Peru, always abundant natural resources. Long wet season = + agriculture, many river valleys = fertile and fish = plentiful; Terrace farming developed in Andes around 4000 years ago because of mountains. Terrace farming is creating steps on mountains
Chavin, Andes Civilization
Social: much of what remains is preserved at Chavin de Huantar, an archeological site, where stone ruins built in the mountain demonstrate high lvl of organization of culture. Temples show that Chavin understood drainage. To prevent floods, built complex drain that kept temple dry. Advanced culture.
Political: dominated much of central coast of Peru, but influenced northern and southern regions too; brought first political unification in region and united local groups with common religion + culture.
Religious: polytheistic, worshiped many deities, part animists
Nazca, Andes Civilization
200 BCE to 600 CE; southern coastal Peru after Chavin. large-scale geological art (Nazca lines) hundreds of feet long and wide, size had led some to speculate about their possible inventions, still matter of debate as to exact use of the lines. Also pottery, recognizable and attractive. Polychrome, meaing once piece decorated w/ several diff colors. Images = people + animals, also angular, bold and modern-looking.
Moche, Andes Civilization
400 BCE to 800 CE; contemporary form of Nazca
Social: ruins of Moche Valley home to Moche Temple of the Moon and Temple of the Sun. area surrounding temples = site of a large Moche city. Most surviving artifacts are from elite class, significantly taller than average. Indicates they much better fed than average Moche. Complex irrigation system allowed grow beans, maize (corn), and other crops. Metalworking and pottery = impressive, decorated realistic images from daily life. Some are mundane, others dramatic. Some Moche pottery shows people ritually consuming the blood of sacrificed prisoners
Detail from a mural in the Temple of the Moon has been named the Decapitator, who frequently appears in imagery relating to human sacrifice and can be found on Moche murals and pottery all over their territory.
Political: northern coastal peru w/ Ecuador's border
Mayans: Social, Religious, Political, Economic
Social: 20 + elaborate cities, at empire's height = 2million people. Accomplishments include written language, sculpture, architectural monuments such as stone pyramids (temple at Tikal). Cities included temples, monuments, pyramids, ball fields, plazas, and palaces. Large stone for structures. Developed math system much easier to use. Symbols constructed out of symbols and lines. Illiterates could do arithmetic because of this
Religious: Religious rituals were a major focus of Mayan life. Some involved torture and human sacrifice. Others were more light-hearted.
Developed calendars, sophisticated glyph system—Zapotec influence
Astronomy, believed world goes through continuous creation and destruction
Political: 250-900CE (Mayan Classic Period) it stretched across S. Mexico, Guatemala, and northern Belize.
Economic: trade, Tikal - trading center, Cacao beans were once used as money, bartered jade, cotton, animal skin, feathers (macaw)
Trade - vast area
Aztecs: Social, Religious, Political, Economic
Social: 1325-1519 CE. Tenochtitlan; great farmers Origin = northern mexico hunter gatherers. Nahuatl = language. Highly sophisticated irrigation and agricultural techniques allowed the Aztecs to farm every inch of their available land. Lots of water and marsh around Tenochtitlan.
Chinampas: converted most of the lake into farmland. Tenochtitlan became"Venice of Americas". Elites lived in large stone homes and regularly ate food imported from other parts of empire.
Individual could rise in social class through personal success.
Bottom: indentured servants + slaves craft specialization. Most people in city = craftsmen, priests, warriors, administrators, or merchants. Calpulli = city states
Religious: Aztecs worshipped Sun, one fear was that it would not rise and kill their crops + bring darkness. To ensure the daily reappearance, they offered grand scale sacrifices to the sun. They brought back their foes to sacrifice
Political: 15th century--Itzcóatl formed alliances with neighboring groups and, through trade and war, quickly established a strong and broad empire.Hernan Cortes took ninth Aztec emperor Moctezuma II and threw him in prison, where he then died. Spanish battled for control over Tenochtitlan and 1 year following Moctezuma's death, Aztec empire fell.
Economic: craft and artisan guilds;
Inca: Social, Religious, Political, Economic
Social: Strict social classes. Top: emperor known as the Sapa Inca, bottom: farmers, lower classes: paid taxes, pyhiscal work for empire; descendants comprise much of Peru, speaking Quechua and practicing Incan-flavored Catholicism.
Religious: pyramids and mummies, pyramids used for religious purposes, mummification preserved dead, in 2002 CE, thousands uncovered by archaeologists, many = children showing high child mortality rate. Polytheistic. Sapa Inca = considered god, religion involved nature gods and human sacrifice. When Catholic Spanish conquered, they destroyed most of symbols of their religion.
Political: Influenced by Spanish. Warlike nation. Numbered 5,000,000 began as a small group, established capital at Cuzco in 12th CE. 14th century CE—expanding and conquering neighboring groups. Ethnic groups were separated to prevent rebellion and large populations forced to move to different ethnic group's area. Cuzco = capital.
Economic: Incas demanded tax of labor from conquered populations. Tax could be paid with military service, construction work, or agricultural work. It was this organized and intensive system of labor that allowed the Incas to complete massive construction projects. Remarkable engineering. Extensive system of roads: relay system, runners brought messages from one part to another. Messages were encoded on knotted lengths of string called quipu.
Writing System: Mayans, Aztec, Inca
Mayans: complex writing system w/ hieroglyphs
Aztec: pictures to represent objects and ideas, but different pictures than Mayans
Inca: spoke Quechua w/o writing system; records kept with quipu
Religion: Mayans, Aztec, Inca
Mayans: 160+ gods and goddesses, each representing element of nature. Religious calender of 260 days, solar calender of 365 days. Human sacrifices.
Aztec: hundreds of gods and goddesses, each ruling a different part of nature. Religious and solar calenders. Human sacrifices.
Inca: many gods, but ruling family prayed to sun god. Religious calenders were not as important, as they practiced divination to determine when to do various activities. Human sacrifices were less frequent.
Public Works: Mayans, Aztec, Inca
All: roads, buildings, canals
Mayans: stelae with carved records, important dates and events of rulers. Emphasized to public their importance.
Aztec: built chinampas (fields above surface of the lake anchored by tree roots)
Inca: complex, paved road system of 14k miles, suspension bridges
Economics: Mayans, Aztec, Inca
All: corn, extensive trade networks
Mayans: canals in swampy areas to drain land and use unearthed soil for raised fields
Inca: terraces in hillsides, less erosion
Politics: Mayans, Aztec, Inca
Mayans: city-states, each ruled by a king that served head of government, military, and religion. Each king had a court, followers, and was advised by a council. Kings often acted as diplomats. City-state structuring prevented Mayan unification.
Aztec: single leader ruled and supported by advisory council. divided empire into provinces, each having a capital and ruled by a governor who collected taxes.
Inca: single leader ruled and supported by advising council. Formed complex bureaucracy that included emperor, 4 officials, and governor for 80 provinces. Mita--commoner called upon for public service, in return his family and land are taken care of
Pacal the Great
He ruled for 67 years and asummed throne through his mother. Created a program that built many great buildings around capital of Palenque.
built dams to control flooding
built aqueduct for fresh water supply
increased human sacrifice after the plague
reorganized gov. to give himself control
formed the triple alliance
Built city of Tumibamda as 2nd capital
Divided his empire
expanded into South and North
His sons split the empire after he died
What is true about historians' knowledge of the Aztecs?
What even led to the downfall of the Aztecs and the Inca?
the Spanish reconquest of Iberia
What represents evidence that the Maya were influenced by the Olmec civilization that preceded them?
ball courts in Mayan ruins, a written language in glyphs, etc.
How did Pacal the Great change the rules of succession in the Mayan civilization?
He set the precedent for rule to be passed down through a female relation.
The main economic basis of the Empire of Mali was derived from the agricultural production of the rural areas. However, the main economic activity that has been preserved in the record is of gold production. What accounts for this disparity?
Which describes the status of priests in pre-Columbian civilizations?
Which of the following gives evidence of continuity across cultures in pre-Columbian Meso and South America?
The Olmec and Maya demonstrated an interest in astronomy.
What explains why Morocco decided to invade Songhai?
Morocco wanted control of the Trans-Saharan gold trade.
Which of the following contributed to the fall of Ghana?
conflicts with the Berbers
What does this image (mask of animal) suggest about the Chavin civilization?
The Chavin included human and animal motifs in their art.
In addition to bringing goods, how did the trans-Sahara trade routes influence the culture of Ghana?
The trade routes brought Muslims who introduced Islam.
The Mayan calendars showed an influence from which other culture?
What influenced the development of both Aztec and Mayan calendars?
The Great Ballcourt at Chichen Itza, the largest of its kind in Mesoamerica, is flanked by temples to the north and south and has temples built into its east and west walls. What does this imply about the role of pok a tok in Mayan culture?
Pok a tok had an important religious aspect in addition to its role as a sport.
Which of the following statements accurately describes the Incan economy?
mita, centrally-planned economy
What place did craftspeople hold in the Muslim social hierarchy?
Which of the following is true of the people of Songhai?
Some were Muslims and some practiced traditional religions of the region.
Which of the following has helped historians learn about the Inca empire?
the ruins of Machu Picchu
While the Chavin and the Nazca inhabited the same area, how did their settlement locations differ?
The Chavin settled the highlands while the Nazca settled the valleys.
What is true of the Solomonic Dynasty of Ethiopia?
It resisted takeover from Muslim and Portuguese invaders.
What did special religious observances in both the Aztec and Spanish calendars provide for people?
fun and entertainment