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the process by which we recollect proir experiences, information, and skills learned

episodic memory*

a memory of a specific event that took place in a persons presence (you remember b/c you were there)

flashbulb memory*

type of episode memory when you can recall events in great detail


general knowledge that people remember (ex. first president)

procedural memory*

consists of skills or procedures that you have learned


first stage of memory; translation of information into a form that can be stored

visual codes

when you try to remember something and you see it as a picture

acoustic rehearsal*

remembering information by reading and repeating it over and over

semantic codes

relating information to personal meaning


2nd process of memory; the maintenance of information of a period of time

maintenance rehersal*

repeating information over and over to keep from forgeting it

elaborate rehearsal*

a new effective way you remember information by making itt meaningful to known information (ex. passcodes, abc's)

organizational rehersal

memories that you store and arrange in your mind in a certain order

filing errors

when your healthy functioning mind is subject to error (not remembering)


3rd process of memory; locating stored information and returning it to conscious thought

context dependent memories*

context of a memory or situation in which the person first had the experience (go back to that place)

state dependent memory*

memories are retrieved because of the mood you are in

tip of the tongue

when you come close to retrieving information but can not fully articulate the memory

sensory memory

1st stage of memory; consists of the immediate initial recording of information that enters through your senses

iconic memory*

snapshots; photographic memory that is extremely brief

eidetic memory

ability to remember photos for a long period of time (photographic memory)

echoic memory*

mental traces of sound held in a sensory register

short term memory

2nd stage of memory; your working memory.. memories held briefly in a sensory register & will remain there until the sensory memory goes away

Primacy effect

Recalling the first items in a list of items

Recency effect

Recalling the last items in a list of items


Organization of items into familiar or manageable groups


When new information appears in short term memory and takes the place of what is already there

Long term memory

Final stage of memory; if you want to remember something longer you take steps to remember it


Representations of the world that we organize from bits of information into knowledge


Memory you try to get back


Memory task; identifying or recognizing objects or events that have happened before


To bring something back to your mind (specific information)


To relearn previous known information


Fading away of a memory like a burning candle (grandparents)


A memory that is hidden because is so unpleasant that it causes anxiety or depression (comes through in dreams) (Sigmund Freud)


Severe memory loss caused by brain injury, fatigue, shock, or illness

Infantile memory

When you can't remember anything before the age of 3

Anterograde amnesia*

Memory loss from trauma that prevents you from forming new memories

Retrograde amnesia*

Forgetting the events leading up to a traumatic event (like a concussion)


Biological view of aggression; Subfield of biology concerned with the behavior of humans and animals


Tactics such as venting of aggressive impulses

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