AP World History Chapter 28-30 Terms
Terms in this set (88)
This German leader headed up the Nazi Party and he fervently held anti-communist and anti-Semitic views. Under his leadership millions of Jews and other undesirables were killed as part of his "Final Solution."
German physicist who developed the theory of relativity, which states that time, space, and mass are relative to each other and not fixed.
All India Muslim League
Political organization founded in India in 1906 to defend the interests of India's Muslim minority. Led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, it attempted to negotiate with the Indian National Congress. In 1940, the League began demanding a separate state for Muslims, to be called Pakistan.
This policy, which aims to pacify an aggressive power by giving it what it wants, exemplified Europe's reaction to Hitler's early expansionist efforts.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
The assassination of this man led Austria Hungary to invade Serbia and bring the alliance systems into World War One.
Nazi extermination camp in Poland, the largest center of mass murder during the Holocaust. Close to a million Jews, Gypsies, Communists, and others were killed there
Statement issued by Britain's Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour in 1917 favoring the establishment of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine.
Battle of Britain
July 10, 1940 Royal Air Force defended the U.K. against German Air Force. Fought all in the air.
Battle of El Alamein
World War II battle in which the Britain, under General Bernard Montgomery, won a decisive victory over Germany and the Afrika Korps, under Erwin Rommel (Desert Fox), in Egypt, securing the Suez Canal.
Battle of Midway
U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II
Battle of Stalingrad
-This battle marked the turning point in the war in Europe.
-German offensive against Soviet Union in which the Soviets counterattacked and catastrophically destroyed Hitler's armies. By 1943 the Soviet Union was no longer on the defensive side, and moved further onward against Germany. A major turning point of the war. Up to 2 million troops died at this battle.
This Italian dictator came to power in 1922 after marching with a small group of rebels on Rome. During his 21 years of power, he undertook a successful but brutal expansionist invasion of Ethiopia and brought Italy into World War II as an Axis power.
Senegalese political leader. He was the first African elected to the French National Assembly. During World War I, in exchange for promises to give French citizenship to Senegalese, he helped recruit Africans to serve in the French army
Fast-moving "lightning war" used by Germany to invade its neighbors in World War II.
Chiang Kai Shek
A military officer who succeeded Sun Yat-sen as leader of the Guomindang or Nationalist party in China in the mid-1920; became the most powerful leader in China in the early 1930s, but his Nationalist forces were defeated and driven from China by the Communists after World War II
Creation of large, state-run farms rather than individual holdings; allowed more efficient control over peasants; part of Stalin's economic and political planning; often adopted in other Communist regimes.
June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.
Mexican revolutionary and military commander of peasant guerrilla movement after 1910 centered in Morelos; succeeded along with Pancho Villa in removing Diaz from power; also participated in campaigns that removed Madero and Huerta; demanded sweeping land reform
This general was a master at tank warfare and earned the nickname Desert Fox due to his ability to outwit allied troops in the North African Desert.
Wife of Juan Peron and champion of the poor in Argentina. She was a gifted speaker and popular political leader who campaigned to improve the life of the urban poor by founding schools and hospitals and providing other social benefits
Fall of Ottoman Empire
This event occurred in 1918, as a result of internal factors, such as civic unrest, and external factors, mainly the empire's defeat during WWI and its occupation and partitioning by the victors. After a war of independence, Turkey emerged as a successor state in 1923.
Fall of the Qing Dynasty
This event occurred in 1911 as a result of mounting internal and external pressures, such as ineffective leadership, declining food levels, and the Boxer Rebellion. Revolutionaries led by Sun Yat-sen installed the new Republic of China in place of the old imperial system.
This political system combines extreme nationalism with authoritarian rule. Fascists opposed both democracy and communism. The system first emerged in Mussolini's Italy and Hitler's Germany in the years following World War I.
the Nazi program of annihilating the Jews of Europe during the Third Reich
Five Year Plans
Plans that Joseph Stalin introduced to industrialize the Soviet Union rapidly, beginning in 1928. They set goals for the output of steel, electricity, machinery, and most other products and were enforced by the police powers of the state.
This plan encompassed Woodrow Wilson's goals for the Treaty of Versailles that included self-determination of nations, peace without victory, disarmament, fair treatment of colonial peoples, and the creation of the League of Nations.
This system of killing a large group of people, often for racial or ethnic reasons.
Elected president of Brazil in 1929; launched centralized political program by imposing federal administrators over state governments; held off coups by communists in 1935 and fascists in 1937; imposed a new constitution based on Mussolini's Italy; leaned to communists after 1949; committed suicide in 1954.
This global economic depression took place during the 1930s. Massive unemployment, widespread deflation, and drastic reductions in national output characterized the chaos. Most affected were the United States and the nations of Western Europe.
The political party founded in 1911 by Sun Yat-sen; it governed China under Chiang Kai-shek from 1928 until 1949 when the Communists took power and subsequently was the official ruling party of Taiwan.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
These two Japanese cities were devastated by atomic bombs dropped by U.S. military forces in 1945, at the end of World War II. More than 150,000 people were killed and these casualties helped compel the Japanese to surrender.
This massive killing of Jews by the Nazi Party took place during World War II at concentration camps such as Auschwitz. It resulted in the deaths of millions of Jews, gypsies, homosexuals, and other individuals the Nazies viewed as undesirable or political opponents.
This process places a nation or nations under the political and economic control of another, stronger power.
This event occurred in 1947 after decades of rising tension between British colonial rulers and the Indian population. Nonviolence, the Indian National Congress, the All-Indian Muslim League, and the weakening of Great Britain after World War II all contributed to this event.
Indian National Congress
A movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government. Its membership was middle class, and its demands were modest until World War I. Led after 1920 by Mohandas K. Gandhi, appealing to the poor.
Japanese admiral who planned the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941
Indian statesman and leader with Gandhi in the struggle for home rule; first Indian Prime Minister
Camps where more than 100,000 Japanese-American were relocated during WWII by order of the President for fear of their loyalty to Japan.
This Soviet leader came to power after Lenin's death in 1924. He instituted complete centralization of the Soviet economy, forced collectivization of all agriculture, encouraged the practice of atheism and strict control of organized religion, and made the USSR the world's dominant communist power. His Five-Year Plans laid out goals for increased industrial and agricultural productivity and his series of Great Purges executed and imprisoned millions of his own people.
President of Argentina (1946-1955, 1973-1974). As a military officer, he championed the rights of labor. Aided by his wife Eva Duarte Peron, he was elected president in 1946. He built up Argentinean industry, became very popular among the urban poor.
November 9, 1938, when mobs throughout Germany destroyed Jewish property and terrorized Jews.
League of Nations
This international organization was created by the Treaty of Versailles following World War I and was first envisioned by Woodrow Wilson in his 14 points.
Hitler's expansionist theory based on a drive to acquire "living space" for the German people
-Lenin deputy who organized the Red Army during the civil war and later lost a power struggle to Stalin.
-Helps communist win civil war and establish gov. but he is taken out by Stalin
Mao Zedong's 1934 escape from the Guomindang to Shaanxi
The German air force before and during World War II. It was responsible for the Blitz of London.
The British ship that was torpedoed by Germany. Americans also on the boat were killed
Allocation of former German colonies and Ottoman possessions to the victorious powers after World War I, to be administered under League of Nations supervision.
Communist leader in revolutionary China; advocated rural reform and role of peasantry in Nationalist revolution; influenced by Li Dazhao; led Communist reaction against Guomindang purges in 1920s, culminating in Long March of 1934; seized control of all of mainland China by 1949; initiated Great Leap forward in 1958.
A powerful African-American leader who advocated a mass migration of African-Americans back to Africa because they will never be treated justly in countries ruled by whites.
Hitler wrote this book while in jail in the 1920s
This event occurred during the 1910s after years of rule by dictator Portofino Diaz. Under Diaz, most Mexicans had no property while foreign interests controlled up to one-quarter of the nation. Revolutionary leaders such as Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata advocated land reform.
This ideology glorifies war and the role of the military within society.
This Indian nationalist figure led the country to challenge British rule. He relied on methods of nonviolent protest and civil disobedience, combining nationalist sentiment and spiritual traditions to create a mass populist movement.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Muslim nationalist in India; originally a member of the National Congress party; became leader of Muslim League; traded Muslim support for British during World War II for promises of a separate Muslim state after the war; first president of Pakistan.
Mustaf Kemal Ataturk
Turkish nationalist leader who became the first president of modern Turkey and set about to modernize and Westernize Turkey, including making it more secular
Roosevelt's plan for getting out of the Depression (relief, recovery, and reform)
New Economic Policy
Policy proclaimed by Vladimir Lenin in 1924 to encourage the revival of the Soviet economy by allowing small private enterprises. Joseph Stalin ended the N.E.P. in 1928 and replaced it with a series of Five-Year Plans.
This method of bringing about political change promoted by such figures as Tolstoy, Gandhi, and Martin Luther King Jr., relies on peaceful protests such as civil disobedience to effect a desired goal. An example of this would be Gandhi encouraged ahimsa as a way to gain Indian independence.
U.S. scientists developed this type of highly destructive weapon during World War II. Some weapons of this type can easily destroy an area the size of a small city. This type of weapon (then called an atomic bomb) was used to defeat Japan during World War II.
Orville and Willbur Wright
These brothers were bicycle mechanics from Dayton, Ohio who built and flew the first plane at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina on December 17, 1903. Flew the first airplane for 12 seconds over a distance of 120 feet at Kitty Hawk, N.C.
Mexican revolutionary and military commander in Northern Mexico during the Mexican Revolution; succeeded along with Emiliano Zapata in removing Diaz from power in 1911; also participated in campaigns that removed Madero and Huerta
Partition of India
This division of colonial India into two separate countries- Muslim-dominated Pakistan and Hindu-dominated India-occurred at the time of independence from Britain in 1947 at the behest of the All-India Muslim League, led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah. It prompted mass migration, violence between Hindu and Muslims, a dispute over the territory of Kashmir.
December 7, 1941 - Surprise attack by the Japanese on the main U.S. Pacific Fleet harbored in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii destroyed 18 U.S. ships and 200 aircraft. American losses were 3000, Japanese losses less than 100. In response, the U.S. declared war on Japan and Germany, entering World War II.
This form of public communication relies on misinformation to persuade a populace to believe the message of a government or other organization.
This revolution took place in two parts in 1917. In February of that year, the last Romanov tsar was removed from power. The second uprising in October installed the communist Bolsheviks as the country's leaders.
The British told the Indians that they could only buy salt from them. To rebel against this, Gandhi and his followers walked 240 miles to the coast, collected water, let it evaporate, and made their own salt.
These innovations, including Albert Einstein's theory of relativity, the development of quantum mechanics, and the emergence of the big bang theory, transformed human understanding of the natural world during the 20th century.
This neurologist applied the scientific method to the workings of the human mind and to human emotions. Claimed that human behavior resulted from a constant struggle between irrational drives and our conscience
A protective tariff on imported goods applied by the US to stimulate the domestic economy.
The Trench Warfare on the Western Front ended up in this for 4 years
Stock Market Crash of Black Tuesday
The stock market crash happened Oct 29, 1929 which was known as.
This Chinese leader, known as the Father of Modern China, helped overthrow the Qing Dynasty and served as the nation's leader from 1911-12 and 1923-25. He promoted the Three Principles of the People-nationalism, democracy, and socialism, as a way to govern China.
This man was the leader of the Zionist movement.
This form of war, employed during both World War I and World War II, relies on the use of ideologies such as fascism, nationalism, and communism, to mobilize all of a nation's resources to wage war. It also involves not just soldiers, but a country's citizens as well.
the practice of a government and/or a leader who aims to control the political, economic, social, intellectual, and cultural lives of its citizens in a way that fulfills a particular goal
Treaty of Versailles
This treaty, signed in 1919, ended WWI. The treaty forced harsh reparations on Germany and redrew the map of Europe; no country was particularly satisfied with its terms. The treaty is often cited as a cause of WWII.
Military and political alliance formed before World War I to counter moves by potential rivals England, France, and Russia; consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy.
Consisted of the Russian Empire, the French Third Republic, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente on 31 August 1907.
Went again the Triple Allies during WW1.
This Russian revolutionary founded the Bolshevik party and led the Russian
Revolution in 1917 with a promise of "Peace,
Land, Bread." After the revolution, he
became the first head of the Soviet Union.
Fought for immediate implementation of African American rights because he believed that educated African Americans must use their education and training to challenge inequality; helped find Niagara Movement in 1905 to fight for and establish equal rights, which later led to the establishment of the NAACP.
War zone that ran from Belgium to Switzerland during World War I; featured trench warfare and massive casualties among the combatants, including Britain, France, Russia, and Belgium; later included the United States.
Word War I
This conflict, fought from 1914 to 1918, pitted the Allied Powers (led by Italy, France, Great Britain, and later the United States) against the Central
Powers ( led by Germany). This war employed new techniques such as trench warfare and home front efforts to involve a nation's complete populace in the conflict.
World War II
This conflict, fought between 1939 and 1945 pitted the Allied Powers against the Axis Powers. This war emerged largely as a result of unresolved issues from World War I and the Treaty of Versailles, but proved more devastating than its predecessor.
This Jewish nationalist movement supports the continued establishment of a Jewish state, Israel, in Palestine.
The Lost Generation
The name for the generation that came during WWI. Using 1883-1900 as birth years for this generation
Spanish Painter(1881-1973) who spent most of his life in France. Arguably the most famous artist of the 20th century. Painting of his included "Guernica" and many others.
Mexican Painter (1886-1957. One of the leading artists of the 20th century and is known for his murals.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Unit 8: WWI, Russian Revolution, WWII
AP World Vocab 28&29
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
vocab 2 ms hughes
Chapter 14-16 Study Guide HUSH Morse
HUSH Ch. 11-13
UNIT 5 MY BOIS AND GURLS