TUN Chapter 21 Terms
Terms in this set (42)
The Great War
This was the original name for World War 1.
"Speak softly and carry a big stick"
This phrase was said by Teddy Roosevelt. America had a big navy compared to other countires and he considered this a, "big stick" in other words, a large navy meant that other countires would want to negotiate with America- a strong navy meant a strong country.
"civilizes versus backward" nations
These definitions are formed by Theodore Roosevelt. "Civilized" nations were prodominantly white, Anglo-Saxon or Teutonic, and producers of industrial goods. "Uncivilized" nations were genually non-white, Latin, or Slavic, and suppliers of raw materials and markets for industrial products. Roosevelt believed the "civilized" ocieties had the right to intervene in the affairs of "backward nations" to perserve order for the sake of both nations.
A channel which opened in 1914 through Central America which links the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, making it easier and faster for ships to travel. Its creation was the most celebrated foreign policy accomplishment of Roosevelt's presidency. This country was chosen for the site of the channel because it was a shorter path than the one previously used in Nicaragua and agreed to hold it after an agreement with Colombia fell through.
TR modified the Monroe Doctrine to require European nations to take their disputes with Western Hemisphere nations to the US first and allow the US to settle them. Made the US the "policeman of the Western Hemisphere."
Taft's foreign policy. Inmstead of threatening military force like TR, Taft offered bribes, loan forgiveness, and low interest rates to persuade other nations to cooperate wiuth the US.
The general that President Wilson ordered to lead a force in order to capture Pancho Villa (a failed Mexican leader who had been killing Americans) in Mexico in 1916. The expedition failed, with a few slight battles before Wilson withdrew the Americans. They never captured Villa.
Pancho Villa was Carranza's lieutenant. He had many military victories and, in the coalition against Huerta. He later staked his own claim to power, but Wilson abandoned him and granted recognition to Carranza. As a result of this, Villa angrily retaliated by shooting 16 American mining engineers in Mexico, and 17 more along the border.
The allies during the great war included Britain, France, Russia, Italy and the United States. Those counties faught against the allied Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria, or the Central Powers.
The Central Powers were Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
This was one of the world's largest passenger ships that the German U-Boats torpedoed in 1915. Several hundred American passengers drowned and led many to demand Wilson declare war against Germany. He resisted and maintained US neutrality until 1917.
This telegram was sent by the German foreign secretary, Arthur Zimmerman, to the German ambassador in Mexico. It contained the message to try to make a deal with Mexico that offered Germany's assistance taking back some territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizonia if Mexico joined their military allliance. However, this telegram was intercepted and President Wilson recieved it which was one of the factors leading to America joining the war.
arsenal of the Allies
"Arsenal of the aliies was startd when there was a heated debate on weather America should make militray and economice preperarions for the war, this stated a debate bettween the interventalist and the pacafist. Wilson endourced an abitious prposel by American military leaers for a large and rapid increase in the nations armed force. The Democratic national conventon center was very enthhusiastic about not going to war there slogan was ""what did we do?...what did we do?....not go to war!...not go to war! this helped wilsons campaighn and people now saw that if they had Wilson as president they wouldnt go ot war. "
Submarines used in World War 1 by the Germans. They were used to sink allied ships near the British Isles.
preparedness versus pacifism
The topic that started the debate between pacifists and interventionists was wether America should make military and economic preperations for war. At first Wilson thought that this was not needed. However, Wilson ended up endorsing this in 1915. By this you can see that Wilson started a a pacifist but ended up being prepared.
"He kept us out of war"
"He kept us out a war" was one of the most prominent solgans of Wilson's reelection campaign. This solgan was created when a speaker punctuated his list on the president's achievments by saying "What did we do?... We didn't go to war!" Although Wilson won the reelection, he was uncomfortable with this victorious slogan because they could be brought to war at any minute.
"Making the World Safe for Democracy"
The war would make the world "safe for democracy" and safeguard "the rights of mankind." America and the president said that they wouldn't fight for territory becasue this could guarantee free trade, self-goverance, peace, and justice.
Selective Service Act
The Selective Service Act was created in 1917 by Wilson, it is also know was the Selective Draft Act. It required all men ages 21-30 to register to their local draft board for a federal military lottery, because there were not enough volenteer to fight in WW1.
In November of 1917 during the Russian Revolution, the Bolsheviks destroyed the tradition of czarist rule. The Bolsheviks would later become the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. V. I. Lenin negotiate peace between Russia and the Central Powers during the Great War (WW1).
a new type of warfare that emerged during this time. With new technology, and through rational fear, it was determined that the safest strategy would be to remain in sheltered trenches that still allowed for fighting. However, this new technology and chemical weapons overtook the trenches and were able to pierce through the shields, which were proved to be inaffective due to this.
The Germans forces started to weaken. Their Submarines werent that effective bc of the convoy system, and their other forces werent working. So, on November 11, 1918 the representivives of warning parties signed an armristice
War Industries Board
It was created in July of 1917. They handled government purchases of military supplies. It was loosely organized without much restriction, President Wilson soon put it under the control of Bernard Baruch, a wall street financier. WIB was given the job to oversee and promote industrial production during WWI.
"Bonds sold by the US government to raise money for WWI - A war bond that was sold in the United States to support the allied cause in World War I. Accepting the bonds became a symbol of patriotic duty in the United States and introduced the idea of financial securities to many citizens for the first time.
Committee on Public Information
The Commitee on Public Information was created in order to create propaganda and influence the public to support the US and their involvement in the war. It also publicized the war aims abroad and to make war more appealing to the public eye.
Espionage & Sedition Acts of 1917
This act made it a crime for any person to give information to intentionally interfere with U.S armed forces; and if done, would be fined. One year later this act was reinforced by the Sedition Act, which had harsh penalties for people who insulted or abused the U.S government, the flag, the military or constitiuion, or teaching, advocating, or defending any of these acts. Both of these acts are aimed at pacifists, socialists, and the Industrial Workers of the World.
Created by Woodrow Wilson, these were statements that were used for peace negotiations to end World War I. These statements fell into three broad categories: first, Wilson's proposals contained a series of eight suggestions in terms of adjusting postwar boundaries and establishing new nations to replace the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires. Second, he proposed that in the future, there will be five main principles that would govern international conduct: freedom of the seas, open covenants instead of secret treaties, reduction in weaponry, free trade, and impartial mediation of colonial claims. Lastly, he proposed the "League of Nations" that would implement these new principles.
Eugene Debs and ASP
One of the most frequent targets of the new legislation were groups like the Socialist Party, so consequently Eugene V. Debs, the leader of the Party, was deemed an opponent of the war and was sentenced to prison for ten years in 1918.
League of Nations
The League of Nations was a group made up of the Allied countries, whose main goal was to prevent future wars from occuring. This idea to form a group was proposed by Woodrow Wilson and voted on and accepted by the Allied nations on January 25, 1919.
Henry Cabot Lodge
Republican US Senator from Massachusetts who was one of Wilson's staunchest opponents of the ratification of the Treaty of Versailles, especially of the League of Nations, because it weakened the socereignty of the US government.
Versailles Treaty Ratification; reservationists vs. irreonciliables
The public wanted ratification of this treaty. There were two groups of people in debate. One believed that America should "remain free of binding foreign entanglements". The others developed into a group of amendments to the League that limited the American obligation to that organization. Later, the Foreign Relations Committee sent the treaty to the Senate, but Wilson refused all of the amendments and the effort to win ratification failed.
Paris Peace Conference
the great lesders, excluding germany and russia, got together in Versailles to negotiate the aftermath of the war. The treaty of Versailles was made but not agreed to be signed and the conference proved unsuccessful
Boston Police Srike
In January, a walkout by shipyard workers in Seattle, Washington, evolved into a general strike that brought the entire city to a virtual standstill. In September, the Boston police force struck to demand recognition of its union. With its police off the job, Boston erupted in violence and looting. Governor Calvin Coolidge called in the National Guard to restore orther and attraced national acclaim by declaring, "There is no right to strike against the public safety."
During the war (ww1) half a million blacks migrated up the rural south to industrial cities in the north in search of factory Jobs the war was rapidly generating
After World War I, this person's black nationalism which promoted African American pride in their own race and culture instead of trying to become a part of white society grew in popularity. This person founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association. Support in black nationalism declined after this person was charged with business fraud in 1923, and, later, he was deported to Jamaica.
Chicago Race Riot
In 1919, an African- American Chicago teenager was swimming in Lake Michigan and drifted too close to beaches for the white people. The white people threw stones at him and he sank and drowned. This caused racial tensions between African-Americans and whites.
Universal Negro Improvement Association
An orginazation founded by Marcus Garvey in Jamaica that focused on racial pride, economic self-sufficiency, and the creation of an independent black nation in Africa. This rganization made a huge imapct in Harlem in the 1916s. However, in 1923 he was covicted of fraud and the UNIA unfortunately did nothelp blacks get to Africa it still represented black natonalism.
Sacco & Vanzetti
Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were charged with the murder of a paymaster in South Braintree, Massachusetts. The case was very weak, but since both men were confessed anarchists (person who believes in anarchy), they faced widespread guilt. They were convicted and sentenced to death. Several years later, people started to publically support Sacco and Vanzetti. Even though there were many protests, on August 23, 1927, Sacco and Vanzetti died in the electric chair.
A series of attacks due to the Red Scare which took place on January 1, 1920, which were conducted by Attornery General A. Mitchell Palmer and his assistant J. Edgar Hoover. These attacks were directed towards alleged radical centers and they arrested 6,000 people. While many were eventually realeased, 500 who were not American citizens were instead deported.
After WWI ended, there were hundreds of labor strikes across the US. Middle class Americans were fearful the country was under attack from anarcxhists and communists. The federal and local governments arrested many political radicals on suspicion of revolution. Thousands were deported from the country.
American Civil Liberties Union(ACLU)
An organization whose purpose is to protect the civil liberties of US citizens. After WW1 there was a strong defense of civil liberties that disproved the Red Scare, gave new force to the Bill of Rights, damaged the democratic party, and led to the creation of this new organization. It was originally called the National Civil Liberties Bureau when it was created in 1917. It was then renamed in 1920. It is still a prominent institution today.
"Return to Normalcy"
This was Warren Harding's message about what America needed after the turmoil of the Progressive period and WWI.