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HBS Urinary system
Terms in this set (34)
How does the urinary system maintain homeostasis?
By eliminating and reabsorbing selected amounts of water and solutes (also secretes various wastes)
What is the specific function of the urinary system?
Is to keep the body in homeostasis by controlling the concentration of volume and the blood
What systems make up the larger excretory system?
The respiratory system, the integumentary system and the digestive system
What is Nephroptosis?
The dangerous dropping of one or both of the kidneys (occurs usually when the adipose or fatty layer around the kidney is deleted, due to a great deal of weight loss such as in anorexia)
What are the three layers of connective tissue around the kidney?
The renal (fibrous) capsule, adipose layer, and renal fascia
The connective tissue covering the external surface of the kidney
Middle layer; surrounds renal capsule; helps secure the kidney in place and acts as a shock absorber
outer layer of dense fibrous connective tissue that anchors the kidney
Series of ridges produced by folding of the wall of an organ (internal surface of the stomach); allow stomach to stretch in order to accommodate larger meals and to help grip and move food during digestion
How much urine can the bladder hold?
The voiding of the bladder
How many sphincters are found in the urethra? The ureters?
Two and none
The nephrons process about how much blood plasma per day?
What is the glomerulus composed of?
Capillaries that are actively involved in the filtration of the blood to form urine
Where does filtration, reabsorption, and secretion occur in the nephron?
Distal and proximal tubules and collecting ducts
What three things does the nephron accomplish?
Control blood concentration and volume, regulate blood pH, and remove toxic wastes from the blood
What is not filtered at the glomerulus?
Protein and blood cells
Under normal circumstances, how much glucose is reabsorbed?
More than 99%
Where is most of the water reabsorbed?
proximal convoluted tubule
Where is the filtrate most concentrated?
When the proximal tubule dips into the renal pelvis
What is urea?
A chemical that comes from the breakdown of proteins
Under normal circumstances, why is urine yellow?
because of your daily water intake
Why will urine eventually smell like ammonia if left standing?
Because it is more concentrated because there is a greater amount of waste products in relation to fluids
The inability to control micturition. Infants can not control their sphincter muscles and therefore cannot control micturition. Trauma, stress, prostate surgery, and advanced age can cause it
Kidney stones (nephrolithiasis)
Occurs when uric acid, calcium oxalate, and calcium phosphate crystallize. They usually form in the renal pelvis. They become extremely painful. Caused by a fatty diet, not drinking enough water, and sometimes high levels of caffeine
Hereditary condition caused by high levels of uric acid. The uric acid crystallizes and accumulates in the kidneys and joints
An inflammation of the glomerulus, which decreases its filtration ability. The urine contains high levels of red blood cells. May cause permanent damage. Can be a complication from a streptococcus infection, autoimmune disease, or any condition that causes a massive immune response
An inflammation of the urinary bladder. Usually caused by bacterial infections, but drug abuse and injury can also cause it
Polycystic kidney disease
Condition in which the kidney contains many cysts and is enlarged
Released by the pituitary gland at the base of the brain after being made in the hypothalamus; prevents production of dilute urine
A corticosteroid hormone that stimulates absorption of sodium by the kidneys and so regulates water and salt balance
sensory receptor found in the hypothalamus that detects changes in osmotic pressure
A test that determines the content of the urine
deals with the diagnosis and management of kidney disease
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