Terms in this set (92)
Proclamation of 1763
Degree issued by Parliament in the wake of Pontiac's uprising, prohibiting settlement beyond the Appalachians. Contributed to rising resentment of British rule in the American colonies.
Boston Tea Party
Reaction to the Tea tax that was supposed to help the Dutch East India Tea Company from going bankrupt. England lowered the price of tea, but it still irritated the colonist because they see England as trying to control them. They ended up dressing up as Indians, and then they dumped it in the Boston Harbor. Later Britan closed the port until the colonist payed back England.
Thomas Paine - Common Sense
Thomas Paine's pamphlet urging the colonies to declare independence and establish a republican government. The widely read pamphlet helped convince colonist to support the Revolution.
Coercive/Intolerable Acts (1774)
Series of punitive measures passed in retaliation for the Boston Tea Party, closing the Port of Boston, revoking a number of rights in the Massachusetts colonial charter, and expanding the Quartering Act to allow for the lodging of soldiers in private homes. In response, colonists convened the First Continental Congress and called for a complete boycott of British goods.
"No tax without representation" signifigance
Started by Sam Adams raises a commotion (House of Burgesses), and the British say colonist have virtual representation in Parliament. Benjamin Franklin goes over to England and realizes if colonist get real representation in Parliament they would be outnumbered. This saying is said, but the colonist do not actually want real representation.
Treaty of Paris 1763
Ended the French and Indian War
people Loyal to England (about 20% of the population)
Stamp Act and Congress (1765)
The Stamp Act was the first direct tax designed to raise funds and compensate for the French and Indian war. Things that went on ships needed the seal on invoices to be legit/legal, and they had to pay for the seal (colonist = angry). Assembly of the delegates from nine colonies who met in New York City to draft a petition for the repeal of the Stamp Act. This helped ease sectional suspicions and promote intercolonial unity.
Sons of Liberty
Lead by Sam Adams, they were non-violent radical revolutionaries.
launched organized boycotts of British goods adopted in response to the Stamp Act, and, later, the Townshend and Intolerable Acts. The agreements were the most effective form of protest against British policies in the colonies.
Olive Branch Petition
Goes to King George after the Boston Massacre because colonist realized their protests are getting serious (Boston Massacre was the first protest with bloodshed).
1st Continental Congress
Does not do anything except agree to have a second Continental Congress later.
Importance: First form of government action taken by the colonies (1st government of America).
2nd Continental Congress (1775-1781)
The representative body of delegates from all thirteen colonies. Drafted the Declaration of Independence and managed the colonial war effort.
What the colonist had in Parliament, one Parliament member = a vote for one colony, and this still made the colonist upset. (Started "No taxation...")
A Bloody campaign waged by Ottawa chief Pontiac to drive the British out of Ohio Country. It was brutally crushed by the British troops, who resorted to distributing blankets infected with smallpox as a means to put down the rebellion
First protest in which the British first shed blood. Clash between unruly Bostonian protestors and locally stationed British redcoats, who fired on the jeering crowd, killing or wounding eleven citizens.
The British customs ship that caught several smugglers. In 1772 it ran aground in Rhode Island, and a group of colonists, dressed as Native Americans, seized their opportunity to burn the ship. The British ordered a commission to investigate and bring guilty individuals to Britain for trial.
Required the colonies to provide food and quartering for British troops. Many colonists resented the act, which they perceived as an encroachment on their rights.
Sugar Act of 1764
Duty on imported sugar from the West Indies. It was the first tax levied on the colonists by the crown and was lowered substantially in response to widespread protests.
Charles Townshend - Duties
External, or indirect, levies on glass, white lead, paper, paint, and tea, the proceeds of which were used to pay colonial governors, who had previously been paid directly by colonial assemblies. Sparked another round of protests in the colonies.
Parliament passes the Tea Act in 1773, which made the price of the company's tea cheaper than smuggled Dutch Tea. Irritated the colonists still because they felt England was encroaching on their rights.
Writs of Assistance
It was the general license an official needed to search anywhere rather than a judge's warrant permitting a search only of a specifically named property (part of Townshend Acts).
Vice Admiralty Courts
Used to try offenders for violating the various Navigation Acts passed by the crown after the French and Indian War. Colonists argued that the courts encroached on their rights as Englishmen because they lacked juries and placed the burden of proof on the accused.
Lexington and Concord
First battles of the Revolutionary War, fought outside of Boston. The colonial militia successfully defended their stores of munitions, forcing the British to retreat to Boston.
George Washington, with the aid of the French army, besieged Cornwallis at Yorktown, while the French naval fleet prevented British reinforcements from coming ashore. Cornwallis surrendered, dealing a heavy blow to the British war effort and paving the way for an eventual peace (The battle that ended the Revolutionary War).
English politician whose policy of taxing the American colonies, initiated by his Sugar Act of 1764 and the Stamp Act of 1765, started the train of events leading to the American Revolution.
King George III
He was the King of England when the Revolutiontionary War and the French and Indian War broke out.
One of the three lawyers whose legal arguments would ultimately provide the intellectual underpinnings of the American Revolution. Stood up in the House of Burgesses to demand that the king's government recognize the rights of all citizens, including the right not to be taxed without representation.
Warned the colonists at Concord that the British sent a large force to seize colonial military supplies. One of the militia (minutemen) of Lexington assembled on the village green to face the British. Ultimately the colonists had to retreat under heavy British fire (first shots of the Revolutionary War).
Daughters of Liberty
Patriotic groups that played a central role in agitating against the Stamp Act and enforcing nonimportation agreements.
Armed march on Philadelphia by Scotts-Irish frontiersmen in protest against the Quaker establishment's lenient policies toward Native Americans. The Paxton Boys protest, occurring in 1763, was a response from discontented colonists in Pennsylvania.
The Currency Act is any of several Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain that regulated paper money issued by the colonies of British America. The Acts sought to protect British merchants and creditors from being paid in depreciated colonial currency.
Declaration of Independence
Formal pronouncement of independence drafted by Thomas Jefferson and approved by Congress. The Declaration allowed Americans to appeal for foreign aid and served as an inspiration for later revolutionary movements worlwide.
Passed alongside the repeal of the Stamp Act, it reaffirmed Parliament's unqualified sovereignty over the North American colonies.
Letters of a Pennsylvania Farmer
John Dickinson of Pennsylvania wrote that Parliament could regulate commerce but argued that because duties were a form of taxation, they could not be levied on the colonies without the consent of their representative. Dickinson argued that the idea of no taxation without representation was an essential principle of English Law.
Committees of Correspondence (1772)
Local committees, initiated by Samuel Adams, established across Massachusetts, and later in each of the thirteen colonies, to maintain colonial opposition to British policies through the exchange of letters and pamphlets.
Articles of Confederation
First American Constitution, states didn't know what they wanted but did know what they didn't want = experimental. It established the US as a loose confederation of states under a weak national Congress, which was not granted the power to regulate commerce or collect taxes. The Articles replaced by the more effective Constitution in 1789.
The first conference Washington hosted in Mt. Vernon to assess what could be done about the country's inability to overcome critical problems. The problems were serious enough to require a later meeting in Annapolis, at which all the states would be represented. After discussing ways to improve commercial regulations, James Monroe and Alexander Hamilton convinced the representatives to have another convention in Philidelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation.
Daniel Shays and his rebellion
The armed uprising of Western Massachusetts debtors seeking lower taxes and an end to property foreclosures. Though quickly put down, the insurrection inspired fears of "mob rule" among leading Revolutionaries. Also, the rebellion showed the weakness of the Articles of Confederation.
Created q policy for administering the Northwest Territories. It included a path to statehood and forbade the expansion of slavery into the territories.
Connecticut "Great" Compromise
Popular term for the measure that reconciled the New Jersey and Virginia Plans at the Constitutional Convention, giving states proportional representation in the House and equal representation in the Senate. The compromise broke the stalemate at the convention and paved the way for subsequent compromises over slavery and the Electoral College.
A series of essays anonymously published defending the Constitution, there were 85 in total (Hamilton my man wrote 51). They were written by John Jay, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton and published during the ratification debate in New York to lay out the federalists'arguments in favor of the new Constitution (essays have served as an important source for constitutional interpretation).
Judiciary Act of 1789
Organized the federal legal system, establishing the Supreme Court, federal district and circuit courts, and the office of attorney general. This Act created the judiciary branch of the US government.
Bank of the US Debate
Jefferson (Democratic-Republican ) argued the Constitution did not allow Congress to have the power to create a bank, but Hamilton (Federalist) said Constitution's "necessary and proper" clause allowed for interpretation as long as it was necessary to carry out its enumerated powers. This argument showed loose vs strict interpretation of the Constitution.
Whiskey Rebellion - Impact
Popular uprising of whiskey distillers in SW Pennsylvania in opposition to an excise tax on Whiskey. In a show of strength and resolve by the new central government, Washington put down the rebellion with militia drawn from several states. Importance: showed that the new Constitution was not weak, and it showed what the Founding Fathers wanted for America.
Negotiated by Chief Justice John Jay in an effort to avoid war with Britain, the treaty included a British promise to evacuate outposts on US soil (said nothing about impressment), in an exchange for which Jay bound the US to repay pre-Revolutionary war debts and to abide by Britain's restrictive trading policies toward France. It was very unpopular among American supporters of France and it narrowly passed the Senate, but it did maintain Washington's policy of neutrality and keep America at peace.
Bill of Rights
Popular term for the first ten amendments to the US Constitution. The amendments secured key rights for individuals and reserved to the states all powers not explicitly delegated or prohibited by the Constitution.
Cotton Gin - impact
Machine created by Eli Whitney, this device prolonged slavery right as it was dying out. It increased the need for slave labor by making cotton growing so profitable for the planters that.
Objecting to Washington's policy the French prime minister to the US, Edmond Genet, broke all formal rules of diplomacy by appealing directly to American people to support the French cause. He was removed as a diplomat because of his conduct but stayed in US, and when he married he became a US citizen.
Treaty of Greenville
Under the terms of the treaty, the Miami Confederacy agreed to cede territory in the Old NW to the US in exchange for cash payment, hunting rights, and formal recognition of their sovereign status.
Signed with Spain, which, fearing an Anglo-American alliance, granted Americans free navigation of the Mississippi and the disputed territory of Florida.
Battle of Fallen Timbers
The Battle of Fallen Timbers (August 20, 1794) was the final battle of the Northwest Indian war, a struggle between American Indian tribes affiliated with the Miami Confederacy and the United States for control of the Northwest Territory.
Diplomatic conflict between France and the US when American envoys to France were asked to pay a hefty bribe for the privilege of meeting with the French foreign minister. Many in the US called for war against France, while American sailors and privateers waged undeclared war against French merchants in the Caribbean (Quasi?).
Acts passed by a Federal Congress raising the residency requirement for citizenship to fourteen years and granting the president the power to deport dangerous foreigners in times of peace.
Statements secretly drafted by Jefferson and Madison for the legislators of Kentucky and Virginia. Argued that states were the final arbiters of whether the federal government overstepped its boundaries and could therefore nullify, or refuse to accept, national legislation they deemed unconstitutional.
Revenue Act of 1789
The states were to generate money for new federal government (5% tariff on certain imports); First Congress had achieved first national tax law and lack of revenue would not be a problem
Tax on goods produced domestically. Excise taxes, particularly the 1791 tax on whiskey, were a highly controversial component of Hamilton's financial program.
2nd Treaty of Paris 1783
Ended the Revolutionary War
Determined that each slave would be counted as 3/5th of a person for the purpose of apportioning taxes and representation. The compromise granted disproportionate political power to S slave states.
Quasi War with France
1798 to 1800
undeclared war fought entirely at sea
Caused by the XYZ affair.
Congress cut off all trade with France.
Navy was created.
Britain - ally
Finally, France backed down
Land Ordinance of 1785
Provided for the sale of land in the Old NW and earmarked the proceeds towards repaying the national debt. The 1785 ordinance laid the foundations of land policy until passage of the Homestead Act in 1862.
Assumption- Transfer debt from one party to another. In order to strengthen the union, the federal government assumed states' Revolutionary War debts in 1790, thereby tying the interests of the wealthy leaders with those of the national government.
Funding at par- Payment of debts, such as government bonds, at face value. In 1790, Hamilton proposed that the federal government pay its Revolutionary War debts in full in order to bolster the nation's credit.
"Letters from an American Farmer"
The Letter from an American Farmer was an essay written by Hector St. Jean de Crèvecœur. This French-born essayist wrote that European society was composed of "great lords who possess everything, and a herd of people who have nothing." America, on the other hand, had "no aristocratical families, no courts, no kings, no bishops." Cultural.
Macon's Bill no. 2
Aimed at resuming peaceful trade with Britain and France, the act stipulated that if either Britain or France repealed its trade restrictions, the US would reinstate the embargo against the nonrepealing nation. When Napoleon offered to lift his restrictions on British ports, the US was forced to declare an embargo on Britain, thereby pushing the two nations closer toward war.
Ideal of family organization and female behavior after the American Revolution that stressed the role of women in guiding family members toward republican virtue.
Leader of the Federalists. First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated for the creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.
Benedict Arnold was a general during the American Revolutionary War who originally fought for the American Continental Army but defected to the British Army.
George Washington is called "the father of his country" for his crucial role in fighting for, creating and leading the United States of America in its earliest days. Washington was a surveyor, farmer, and soldier who rose to command the Colonial forces in the Revolutionary War. He held the ragtag Continental Army together -- most famously during a frigid encampment at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania during the winter of 1777-78 -- and eventually led them to victory over the British.First President of the United States. He established many of the presidential traditions, including limiting a president's tenure to two terms. He was against political parties and strove for political balance in government by appointing political adversaries to government positions. In his farewell address, he warned against partisan fighting and neutrality.
James Madison's accomplishments include writing the Federalist Papers, playing a major role in the creation of the U.S. Constitution and serving as the fourth president of the United States of America. During his tenure as the latter, he declared war on Great Britain, leading the War of 1812.
He was the second president of the United States and a Federalist and served as vice president under Washington. He was responsible for passing the Alien and Sedition Acts. Prevented all out war with France after the XYZ Affair. His passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts severely hurt the popularity of the Federalist party and himself. He supported a strong central government that favored industry, banking interests, merchants, and close ties with England.
United States diplomat and jurist who negotiated peace treaties with Britain and served as the first chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1745-1829).
Mohawk chief who converted to Anglicanism; believed that a victorious Britain would restrain American expansion into the West
A constitutional right to reject a decision or proposal made by a law-making body.
British general during the Revolutionary War who, having failed to crush Greene's forces in South Carolina, retreated to Virginia, where his defeat at Yorktown marked the beginning of the end for Britain's efforts to suppress the colonial rebellion.
Marquis De Lafayette
Marquis de Lafayette- French who was made a major general in the colonial army at the age of 19; the "French Gamecock"; his services were invaluable in securing further aid from France.
Virginian, architect, author, governor, and president. Wrote the Declaration of Independence. Second governor of Virgina. Third president of the United States. A leading Democratic-Republican (strict interpretation of Constitution)and the first Secretary of State that opposed Alexander Hamilton's ideas.
Political party led by Thomas Jefferson; it feared centralized political power, supported states' rights, opposed Hamilton's financial plan, supported ties with France, and believed in strict interpretation of the Constitution.
Anti-Feds vs Fed (during ratification)
Massachusetts farmers opposed the Constitution because they felt it protected trade more than agriculture, but Massachusetts became the 6th state to ratify. New York was opposed to the Constitution; theFederalist Papers were published there to gain support for it. Virginia and New York would not ratify until the Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution.
Feds- Known as Federalists, they were mostly wealthy and opposed anarchy. Their leaders included Jay, Hamilton, and Madison, who wrote the Federalist Papers in support of the Constitution.
Anti-Feds- Known as Antifederalists, they were mostly commoners who were afraid of a strong central government and being taken advantage of. They included Patrick Henry and Samuel Adams.
American colonists who opposed the Revolution and maintained their loyalty to the king (20% of population); sometimes referred to as "Tories"
Battle of Saratoga
After Burgoyne had captured Fort Ticonderoga in July 1777 his troops ran into trouble and became exhausted, supplies ran short, etc. He then sent an expedition to Bennington to capture American supplies but a force of New England militia met them and defeated them. his men were surrounded near Saratoga by the Continental Army, he surrendered. This battle was the turning point of the war and convinced France to aid the American cause.
The French Revolution and especially its aftermath led to the first major split in U.S. national politics, which widened to produce the first party system. Thomas Jefferson and his followers were pro-French, whereas John Adams, Alexander Hamilton, and their associates were anti-French Revolution and with the rise of Napoleon, pro-British. The US fought an undeclared war, a series of naval skirmishes called the Quasi-War, with the Directory in 1798.
Valley Forge was not a battle; it was the site where the Continental Army camped during the winter of 1777- '78, after its defeats at the Battles of the Brandywine and Germantown. The Continental Army suffered further casualties at Valley Forge due to cold and disease. Washington chose the site because it allowed him to defend the Continental Congress if necessary, which was then meeting in York, Pennsylvania after the British capture of Philadelphia.
New Jersey Plan
"Small-state plan" put forth at the Philidelphia convention, proposing equal representation by state, regardless of population, in a unicameral legislature. Small states feared that the more populous states would dominate the agenda under a proportional system.
Loose vs strict constructionism
Republicans want a strict interpretation of the Constitution. The Federalists wanted a loose interpretation of the Constitution. Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
Strict- Constitution states that the government of the United States holds only those powers specifically granted to it by the Constitution
Loose- interpretation of the Constitution posits that the government of the United States hold all powers that are not specifically denied to it by the Constitution.
It states that Congress has the power "to make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper" for governing the country. This was made due to the fact that no one knew what the country would be like in the future, and therefore this clause gave congress power to adjust to the times in order to preserve the strength of the union.
"Necessary and Proper" Clause
Clause of the Constitution (Article I, Section 8) setting forth the implied powers of Congress. It states that Congress, in addition to its express powers, has the power to make all laws "necessary and proper" for executing its given powers.
Checks and Balances
A system that ensured that no particular branch of government gained too much power over another. It demonstrated the fear of absolute power in one group/individual as well as preventing one branch from overpowering the others.
18th-century religious doctrine that emphasized reasoned moral behavior and the scientific pursuit of knowledge. Most deists rejected biblical inerrancy and the divinity of Christ, but they did believe that a Supreme Being created the universe.
Chisholm vs Georgia (1793)
Granted federal courts the affirmative power to hear disputes between private citizens and States
Report of Public Credit
Proposed by Hamilton to repair war debts; selling of securities and federal lands, assumption of state debts, set up the first National Bank
Report of Manufactures
Hamilton's plan to increase the growth and development of manufacturing. accomplished through tariffs, loans, grants, excise taxes to raise revenue, and subsidies. He argued that it benefited everyone in the long run
Washington's Farewell Address
A document by George Washington in 1796, when he retired from office. It wasn't given orally, but printed in newspapers. It did not concern foreign affairs; most of it was devoted to domestic problems. He stressed that we should stay away from permanent alliances with foreign countries; temporary alliances wouldn't be quite as dangerous, but they should be made only in "extraordinary emergencies". He also spoke against partisan bitterness. This document was rejected by the Jeffersonians, who favored the alliance with France.