2. Which layer does the temperature constantly decrease?
3. Differences in water temperature and salinity causes differences in water density an can set water masses in motion. What is this called?
4. Which layer is affected by wind and waves?
5. What term refers to water layer with constant density?
6. What causes the summer monsoon season in the Indian ocean?
The land warms up.....
7. A local shore wind controlled only by daily temperature variation between land and water will blow Blank during the night.
8. Hurricanes derive their energy from blank pressure zones in the blank latitudes. 9. A storm surge is due to the low atmospheric pressure at a storms center and strong winds creating a surface flow towards the shore.
9. A storm surge is due to the blank atmospheric pressure at a storms center and strong winds creating a surface flow towards the shore.
10. What causes El Nino?
South-East trade winds weaken and the warm pool on the west pacific spreads east.
11. What is the process that transports oxygen rich surface water to depth?
12. What is a water mass?
A large body of water with similar values of both salinity and temperature.
13. In the northern hemisphere, what will be the mean direction and flow of the water column due to Ekman Transport? Wind is blowing South.
90 degrees to the right.
14. In the Southern Hemisphere, what will be the direction of the surface water due to this wind? Wind is blowing South.
45 Degrees to the left.
15. What drives and shapes the major ocean gyres?
Wind, distribution of continents, gravity, friction, and coriolois effect.
16. Geostrophic flow occurs when?
The coriolis effect is equal to the force of gravity acting downslope from the middle gyre.
17. Plunger breaker is formed from
moderatley steep ocean floor
19. Why do waves break as they approach the shore?
Orbital motion slows them down and they get compressed upwards.
Dispersed in bays and concentrated on headlands.
21. Standing waves that occur in natural basins are called what?
22. Why do tsunami waves always behave as shallow waves?
Because there is no place in the ocean where the depth would be more than 20 times the wavelength of any tsunami.
24. Waves occurring at the interface between water layers of different density such as seawater and fresh water are called?
25. In a standing wave, the positions where there is maximum vertical motion are called?
26. What is wave length?
Crest to crest
27. How can you calculate wave speed?
28. What are deep water waves?
Waves where the depth is greater than the wave base.
29. The Speed of a shallow water wave depends on?
30. If you were a submarine commander and wanted to go deep enough that your ship would not feel the effect of a storm wave that has 200 meter wavelength, how deep would you have to go?
31. A group of waves is propagated at a speed that is blanlk the speed of the individual waves in deep water.
32. The average energy of a wave is related to the square of its?
33. Wave height of wind generated waves depends on what?
Wind speed duration and fetch
34. A water wave reaches an unstable breaking point when the steepness ratio, H/L reaches
36. If the earth was made up of only water where would the tides be?
both opposite of the earth and same side of the moon.
Sun and moon on same side of the earth.
looks like W with even low tides tropical
looks like W with uneven low tides mid latitudes
looks like a U polar
41. Currents are more intense on the _____ side of the North Pacific ocean?
42. A zone of divergence is an area of __ and ___ biological productivity?
43. Which current flows south along the west coast of the US?
44. How does the Antartic Circumpolar Current flow all the way around Antartica?
There are no land masses to block its flow, Therefore westerlies powers it all the way around.
45. Wind-driven surface currents move at a speed that is _____ tha average driving wind speed?
46. What measurements are necessary to define a current?
Speed and direction
small temporary loops of swirling water
48. Where does water sink and enter the great conveyor belt?
North Atlantic and Antartic
49. What is it called when surface water are driven together?