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ESL Praxis II
Vocabulary and terms used on the ESL Praxis II test.
Terms in this set (140)
When the subject performs the action in the sentence (John carried the papers to the desk).
Affective Filter Hypothesis
Hypothesis that states nervousness, boredom, and anxiety have a negative affect on comprehension.
Produced by briefly stopping air and then releasing it with some friction (church).
All the phones that make up a phoneme.
A strong burst of air that accompanies either the release or closure of some consonant sound formed by obstructing airflow.
Audio- Lingual Method
A style of teaching based on behaviorist theory. This approach to language learning is similar to direct method. THIS method advised that students be taught a language directly, without using the students' native language to explain new words or grammar in the target language. Unlike the direct method, THIS method doesn't focus on teaching vocabulary. Rather, the teacher drills students in the use of grammar.
Basal Reading Approach
Skills are taught in a sequential order based on material contained in basal reader.
Theory that learning is a process of stimulus and response. What is reinforced is repeated.
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills
BICS - Non-Academic language skills.
Two letters that are pronounced together with each letter retaining it pronunciation.
Must be attached to a root word to have meaning (suffixes and prefixes).
Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach
(CALLA) Teaches explicit learning strategies while language is taught through content. Great for middle school and high school teachers.
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
Castaneda v. Pickard
Court case that determined that segregation of ELL's only permissible when the benefits of remedying language barriers outweigh adverse affects of segregation.
ELLs must be evaluated for effectiveness using a set of established criteria.
Alternating between two or more languages, dialects, or registers in a single conversation.
Words with similar roots in L1 and L2. Should be pointed out to students (escuela and school)
Community Language Learning
Counselor facilitates and supports students in communicating with a group. Students choose what they want to learn.
A group of 2 or more consonants together with no intervening vowel (ex: pl, st. caught).
Two consonants pronounced a a single sound (ch, sh, th, wh).
Learner-centered approach; students construct knowledge for themselves from their own experiences.
Says it takes 5 to 7 years to learn academic English (new research suggest now 7-10 years). Also had theories on BICS and CALP.
Stand in place for a person, thing that must be pointed to (That car is the one I want).
Affixes that can be added to a morpheme to change its meaning and may change its part of speech (modern-ise).
Two letter spelling for 1 phoneme.
Use target language in instruction to communicate and think in target language. Refrain from using native language. Constant question and response with teacher and students.
English Language Learner
The process of learning one's culture.
Almost 100% of class is taught in the target language (English).
Equal Education Opportunities Act of 1974
Required schools to design language programs to climate language barriers in schools.
English as a Second Language
ESL Placement Process
1. All students given home language survey
2. Students identified as ELL's are assessed
3. Students who test NES or LES are recommend for ESL
4. Parent Permission is sent and outcome plan is written
5. Students continue in ESL until proficient
6. After exit, monitor for 2 years
The tendency to evaluate other groups according to the values and standards of ones own ethnic group, especially with the conviction that one's own ethnic group is superior to the other groups.
Type of instruction that provides definitions and examples.
Words that sound similar, but have no meaning in common (la arena/ arena).
Fluent English Speaker
The point past which language learners can not progress without exceptional effort.
Base in root words that can stand alone.
Produced by a constant flow of air through the vocal tract (f and v).
Taught in native language. Focus on memorizing vocabulary translating literature passages.
Two words with same pronunciation.
A phrase that makes no sense taken literally.
"It was raining cats and dogs."
Type of instruction where wide reading is considered how most new words are acquired.
Refer to an unknown person, place or thing (Nothing is true).
Affixes that can be added to a morpheme without changing its part of speech/suffixes (work-ed).
A hypothesis thats states input should be slightly beyond students' current level (i+1) for acquisition to occur; pictures, gestures, tone of voice help make input comprehensible; frequently use key vocabulary words.
Integrated Language Approach
An approach that assumes that language is learned best when it integrated, whole, and in context. Focus on meaning and using language to communicate reading writing, speaking, and listening are all essential components.
Used to ask questions (who?, what?).
Using knowledge of letter names to try to spell words, best judgment of spelling (ex: elafunt for elephant).
Technical vocabulary associated with a special activity.
Key Components of Effective ESL Instruction
1. Clearly defined language and content objectives
2. Building background knowledge
3. Comprehensible Input
5. Opportunities for student interaction
6. Practice and Application
7. Effective lesson delivery
8. Review and Assessment of key vocabulary and key content objectives.
Had theories on comprehensible input (i+1) and believed in the Natural Approach
Language Experience Approach
A teaching approach where students dictate stories to the teacher who records them, using students' own vocabulary, grammar, and experiences to form the basic reading material. Uses students' spoken language to develop materials for reading and writing instruction. This approach incorporates students' oral language levels and personal experiences.
Lao v. Nichols
Court case that determined that schools cannot discriminate based on language and must provide appropriate educational accommodations to non English speakers.
Language Assessment Scale
Limited English Proficiency
Limited English Speaker
Limited formal schooling
Learning approach based on letter-sound correspondence.
The study of language.
Make a smooth sound (l and r).
A bilingual program that strives for full bilingualism and bi-literacy. Native language instruction continues after English proficiency is attained.
Melting Pot Theory
When people from other cultures assimilate to the point where their original identities and culture disappear- they become a uniform culture.
A pair of words that differ by only 1 phoneme (dog/bog).
A hypothesis that states rules are used to double check what we say or write; requires time; focus on how something is said rather than the message itself; "middle of the road" is the best approach to monitoring.
The smallest grammatical unit that is indivisible without violating meaning or producing meaningless sounds-dog.
The study of words and their internal organization.
Cultures mix together in a culture of respect for diversity. Groups retain their culture identities
Multiple Exposures to vocabulary is critical.
Sound comes through the nose (m).
Based on Krashen's acquisition theory. This approach emphasises communication, and places decreased importance on conscious grammar study and explicit correction of student errors.
Natural Order Hypothesis
A hypothesis that states features of speech appear in predictable order; sounds come first with some coming before others; statements before questions and positives before negative; order is determine by the language acquired, not the first language
Requires annual assessments of ELL's in reading and math, requires annual assessments of ELL's proficiency and progress in English and increases state and local accountability for LEP students' progress.
Applying rules of syntax from first language to the second language (ex: I saw the car blue).
Using singular/plural form of nouns correctly.
The study of sound and spelling. (English has a "deep orthography" with many rules and options for letter/sound correspondence.)
Applying a rule of syntax to all situations "goed, "comed", vs "went" and "came".
When the action is performed by an unknown agent (The papers were carried to the desk).
Takes the place of a name of a person, place, or thing (He, She, It).
The smallest linguistic unit of sound that can signal a difference in meaning.
Mispronouncing phonemes- usually with one articulated in a similar positioning of the mouth.
The study of sounds across languages.
Plyer v. Doe
Court case that determined that the 14th amendment prohibits states from denying a free public education to undocumented children. Prohibits schools from request of any documentation of legal status.
Refer back to the person to whom the pronoun refers.
The type of language used in a particular context (casual, professional).
Used to relate to another noun in the sentence.
Usually used at the end of questions.
Instructional supports provided to a student by an adult or a more capable peer in a learning situation.
Sight Word Approach
An approach where students memorize words as a whole.
Understanding language before being able to produce. The first state of language acquisition.
Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol.
(SIOP) A system for teaching language and content effectively.The use of clear, direct, simple English and wide range of scaffolding strategies to communicate meaningful input in the content area to ELLs above the beginner level.
Building Background Knowledge
Practice and Application
Formed by completely blocking the air and releasing it bilabials- stopped at lips.
Governs the form or structure of a language (sentences). Specifics what word combinations are acceptable and what ones are not.
The Silent Way
Students take responsibility for their own learning. Teacher is silent most of the time. Speaks to give clues, not model language.
Requires Ell's to receive equal numbers of textbooks and other resources as their English speaking peers.
Prohibits denial of equal access b/c of limited English proficiency. Specifically prohibits programs that don't teach English as soon as possible.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
No person b/c of race, color, or national origin shall be excluded from participation nor denied benefits, or otherwise subject to discrimination if program receives federal funds.
Total Physical Response
Based on the coordination of language and physical movement. Instructors give commands to students in the target language, and students respond with whole-body actions.
A bilingual program designed to move students to English proficiency as soon as possible. Then native language is discontinued.
Student population of 2 or more languages (50/50 L1, L2).
United States code 1703
No state shall deny education opportunity b/c of race, color, or national origin by failure of an educational agency to provide services to overcome language barriers that impede participation of students in its instructional programs.
Developed "Zone of Proximal Development" theory.
b, d, g
p, t, k
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
Vgotsky - Must work at appropriate development level- not to hard or to easy- in order to learn
Stages of Second- Language Acquisition
2. Early Production
3. Speech Emergence
4. Intermediate Fluency
5. Advanced Fluency
The process by which a person or a group's language and, or culture come to resemble those of another group.
Adustment that meets a need.
Motivation that comes from external factors, as opposed to internal pleasures or rewards. Drives one to do things for tangible rewards or pressures, rather than for the fun of it.
Type of motivation in which a person performs an action because the act itself is rewarding or satisfying in some internal manner.
A concept in the mind about events, scenarios, actions, or objects that have been acquired from past experiences. Mind must find previous experiences to organize and relate new info.
Modifies a noun or a pronoun by describing, identifying, or quantifying words. They usually precede the noun or the pronoun which it modifies.
A word used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract idea.
Asserts something about the subject of the sentence and express actions, events, or states of being.
Modifies a verb, an adjective, an adverb, a phrase, or a clause. Indicates manner, time, place, cause, or degree and answers questions such as "how," "when," "where," "how much".
Usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence.
Links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence.
A word added to a sentence to convey emotion. It is not grammatically related to any other part of the sentence.
Used to link words, phrases, and clauses.
Verb Tense - I eat the pie.
Verb Tense - I am eating the pie.
Verb Tense - I have eaten the pie.
Present Perfect Progressive
Verb Tense - I have been eating the pie.
Verb Tense - I ate the pie.
Verb Tense - I was eating the pie.
Verb Tense - I had eaten the pie.
Past Perfect Progressive
Verb Tense - I had been eating the pie.
Verb Tense - I will eat the pie.
Verb Tense - I will be eating the pie.
Verb Tense - I will have eaten the pie.
Future Perfect Progressive
Verb Tense - I will have been eating the pie.
A term in linguistics which refers to a language user's grammatical knowledge of syntax, morphology, phonology and the like, as well as social knowledge about how and when to use utterances appropriately.
The extent to which a test accurately measures what it purports to measure.
Used to describe the overall consistency of a measure. A measure is said to have a high THIS if it produces similar results under consistent conditions. For example, measurements of people's height and weight are often extremely THIS.
A type of test, assessment, or evaluation which yields an estimate of the position of the tested individual in a predefined population, with respect to the trait being measured. Percentile ranking.
Test that provides for translating scores into a statement about the behavior to be expected of a person with that score or their relationship to a specified subject matter. Most tests and quizzes that are written by school teachers can be considered THIS. The objective is simply to see whether the student has learned the material.
Refers to the phenomenon in which first-language attrition occurs in learners as a result of their acquiring a new language. This is typically caused by learners of a second language who no longer have opportunities to use their first language in a new environment.
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Phonetic symbols for ESL Praxis
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