23 terms

IB Psychology - CLOA SAQs


Terms in this set (...)

Cognitive Level of Analysis
The cognitive level of analysis is based on how mental processes such as perception, attention, language, memory and thinking in the brain processes information.
(SAQ) Outline principles that define the cognitive level of analysis
-Command term: Outline - give a brief account or summary
-Intro: The principles are the main ideas that have results in focused research on specific areas of behavioural psychology.
1) The mind can be studied scientifically
Experiments are used so we can establish cause and effect, control variables, replicate procedure and reduce extraneous variables
-Study: Newcomer et al. (1999)
2) Cognitive processes are influenced by social and cultural factors
-Study: Bartlett (1934)
(SAQ) Explain how biological factors affect one cognitive process
-Command term: Explain - detailed account including reasons or causes
-Intro: All human cognitive processes have a biological basis, such as hormones, neurotransmission or physical (hippocampal) damage.
-Study: Newcomer et al. (1999) - cortisol
(Study) Newcomer et al. (1999)
-Aim: Investigated interference of cortisol (stress hormone) on verbal declarative memory
-Procedure: Random, controlled, double blind experiment for 4 days. 51 healthy participants aged 18 - 30 were tested. 3 experimental conditions; 160mg cortisol tablet, 40mg cortisol tablet and placebo 3x a day
-Findings: High cortisol levels performed worse on verbal declarative memory test, mid levels memory not affected.
-Conclusion: Cortisol correlated with loss of memory, supports theory that biological factors may correlate with cognitive processes
(SAQ) Outline one model or theory of a cognitive process
-Command term: Outline - give a brief account or summary
-Intro: Various theories to help explain cognitive processes. Flash Bulb Memory Theory, proposed by Brown & Kulik (1977), describes explicit memory that remains intact due to emotional arousal. Highly accurate (photograph). Related to a shocking or sudden event
-Study: Brown & Kulik (1977)
(SAQ) Outline schema theory with reference to one research study
-Command term: Outline - give a brief account or summary
-Intro: Schema theory is a mental representation of how knowledge is stored and organised in the brain. Network of knowledge, beliefs and expectations.
-Study: Bartlett (1932) - War of the Ghosts Study, Brewer & Treyens (1981) - Office Experiment
(Theory) Schema Theory by Bartlett (1934) and Piaget (1920)
Schemas are cognitive structures that organise knowledge, mental representations of categories
Schema theory states that "as active processors of information, humans integrate new information with existing, stored information."
Missing information is filled in using existing schemas which creates false processing and distortions
-Accomodation: an existing schema is replaced (adapted with new information)
-Assimilation: new information is added to the schema
E.g. gym schema - sweat, exercise clothes, machines
(Study) Bartlett - War of the Ghosts Study (1934)
-Aim: Investigated the role of culture on schemas and if memory is reconstructive
-Procedure: Serial reproduction (1st person reproduces original story, 2nd person reproduces 1st reproduction etc) with British participants of a Native American legend. P's read through the story twice, 15 minutes after, and then at irregular weekly intervals asked to retell the story
-Findings: Story became shorter (329 words → 180 words), details that did not fit with the conventions and cultural background of the storyteller were eliminated (canoes → boats).
-Conclusion: Supports schema theory as people tried to find patterns in unfamiliar information.
(Study) Brewer & Treyens - The Office Experiment (1981)
-Aim: Investigated effects of schema on recall of objects in an office
-Procedure: Controlled laboratory experiment with 30 university participants. P's waited individually in the office for 35 seconds, then taken to another room and asked to recall all the objects they you remember from the other room.
-Findings: P's recalled all objects consistent with typical office schema (e.g. desk, calendar), 9 P's recalled books even though none were in the room. Only 1 remembered the picnic basket and 8 remembered the skull.
-Conclusion: Schemas can affect memory retrieval and distort it
(SAQ) Explain the reliability of one cognitive process with reference to one relevant study
-Command term: Explain- detailed account including reasons or causes
-Intro: Memory is invaluable process to encode, store and retrieve information. Can be unreliable as it is reconstructive, can be distorted and are susceptible to manipulation
-Study: Loftus & Palmer (1974) - Car Crash Study
(Study) Loftus & Palmer - Car Crash Study (1974)
-Aim: Investigated if changing one word in critical questions (mainly eyewitness testimonies) could influence retrieval of schemas, with estimating speed and reliability of memory
-Procedure: Controlled laboratory experiment of 45 university students. P's watched videos on car crashes then had to estimate the speed of the car when they were asked "How fast were the cars going when they HIT each other?" Hit was replaced with contacted, bumped, collided or smashed with each variable group.
-Findings: Smashed group remembered the accident much more violently than contacted group, and estimated speed of the car 10m/s faster.
-Conclusion: Differences in language can effect memory recall and memory in unreliable and can be manipulated
(SAQ) Describe how a social or cultural factors affect one cognitive process
-Command term: Describe - give a detailed account
-Intro: Culture is both a system (values, schemas, models) and a process (rituals, routines) and affects what, why, how and when people remember. Memory is a cognitive process where past experiences are remembered.
-Study: Rogoff & Wadell (1982)
(Study) Rogoff & Waddel (1982)
-Aim: Investigated whether different cultures would remember more information, if presented in a meaningful way to their culture
-Procedure: Cross-cultural experiment of 30 US and 30 Mayan children. Researchers constructed diorama of a Mayan village and Salt Lake City, and took 20 everyday objects (animals, furniture) from a pile of 80 objects and placed them in the model.Each child watched this performance before the objects were returned to the main pile. Children then had to reconstruct the scene.
-Findings: Mayan children performed slightly superior to US children in this task
-Conclusion: Children of any culture are skilled at remembering is presented in a meaningful way, culture affects what we process as important enough to remember.
(SAQ) Explain how emotion may affect one cognitive process
-Command term: Explain - detailed account including reasons or causes
-Intro: Flashbulb memory theory proposed by Brown & Kulik (1977) suggests an episodic memory vivid like a photograph, at the moment of hearing shocking news.
-Study: Brown & Kulik (1977)
(Theory) Flashbulb Memory by Brown & Kulik (1977)
-FBMs are:
Type of explicit/episodic memory that remains intact to to emotional arousal and significance
Highly accurate and exceptionally vivid (photograph)
Related to a shocking or sudden event
Relies on a neural mechanism (amygdala)
-Features of a FBM:
place - where they were when they heard the news
ongoing activity - what they were doing
informant - how they heard of the incident
own affect - emotional status
other affect - how others felt
aftermath - importance and consequences of the event
(Study) Brown & Kulik (1977)
-Aim: Investigated whether shocking events recalled more vividly than others and authenticity of FBMs
-Procedure: Researchers interviewed 80 Americans; 40 caucasians and 40 African-Americans. 10 questions, about 9 public shocking events and one personal shocking event.
-Findings: J.F. Kennedy's assassination in 1963 led to the most flashbulb memories of all participants. African Americans recalled more FBM's of civil right leaders; e.g. assassination of Martin Luther King more than the Caucasians
-Conclusions: Form in situations where we encounter surprising and highly emotional information. Are maintained by means of overt & covert rehearsal.
Differ from other memories in that they are more vivid, last longer and are more consistent and accurate,
(SAQ) Apply the use of technology in investigating cognitive processes
-Command term: Apply - use an idea, equation, principle, theory or law in relation to a given problem
-Intro: Brain Imaging Techniques (PET and fMRI) to investigate memory. Medical uses - detection of brain abnormalities for advanced diagnosis of cognitive disabilities and helping prolong lives. Can provide accurate results.
-Study: Mosconi et al. (2005)
(Study) Mosconi et al. (2005)
-Aim: Using BITs to diagnose earliest signs of Alzheimer's disease (strand of dementia rooted in memory impairment) in the brain
-Procedure: Longitudinal experiment using PET scan on 53 normal, healthy participants for 9 - 24 years. Measured metabolic rate in the hippocampus.
-Findings: P's with reduced metabolic rate in the hippocampus later developed Alzheimer's.
-Conclusion: Technology can pick up initial signs of brain deterioration
(SAQ) Explain how cognitive and biological factors interact in emotion?
-Command term: Explain - detailed account including reasons or causes
-Intro: Emotion has a cognitive (thoughts, memories) and a biological (hormones, neurotransmitters) basis which it relies on. Le Doux's model of biological pathways of emotion in the brain incorporates localization of memory processes.
-Study: Le Doux (1999)
(Theory) Le Doux's Theory of the Emotional Brain (1999)
-Short route: physiological stress response - fight or flight, immediate danger, amygdala reacts immediately to sensory, quick reactions between "life and death",
-Long route: rational decision making, sensory input goes via sensory cortex to hippocampus, involves evaluation of the stimulus and consideration of appropriate response, stored in memory
(Study) Le Doux (1999)
-Aim: Investigating the role of the amygdala in emotion
-Procedure: Controlled laboratory experiment using rats. Rats were conditioned to fear the sound of a bell, by receiving an electric shock every time the bell rang. Brain creates connection between bell and fear. Rats were lesioned to investigate which part of the brain made the connection.
-Findings: Researchers found that lesions to the Thalamus significantly reduced the rats susceptibility to fear conditioning while a lesion to the Amygdala would negate all fear and fear conditioning within the rat.
-Conclusion: From the results Le Doux formulated his model
(SAQ) Describe one ethical consideration related to one research study at the CLOA
-Command term: Describe - give a detailed account
-Intro: There are standard ethical guidelines in place to protect all animals or humans involved in psychological studies. Ethical consideration - avoid or minimise stress and suffering on all living beings and consider all other options before resorting to animal testing.
-Study: Le Doux (1999)
(SAQ) Explain why one particular research method has been used at the CLOA
-Command term: Explain - detailed account including reasons or causes
-Intro: 2 main types of research methods; experiments and case studies. Experiments; IV, DV, laboratory, natural or field. Cause-and-effect established, easily replicable, strict control over variables, high reliability, most scientific research method, more effective
-Study: Newcomer et al. (1999)