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Large quantities of keratin are found in the epidermal layer called the
A: Stratum Lucidum
B: Stratum Spinosum
C: Stratum Germinativum
D: Stratum Granulosum
E: Stratum Corneum

stratum corneum

Tactile receptors composed of capsules that surround a core of collagen fibers intertwined with dendrites are called
A: root hair plexuses
B: ruffini corpuscles
C: tactile discs
D: tactile (Meissner) corpuscles
E: lamellated corpuscles

Ruffini corpuscles

All of the following compose the epithelial projections found on the tongue, except
A: filiform papillae
B: circumvallate papillae
C: fungiform papillae
D: gustatory papillae
E: none of the above

gustatory papillae

The brain waves produced by normal adults while resting with their eyes closed are__ waves.
A: delta
B: beta
C: alpha
D: theta
E: gamma


When all three cone populations are stimulated equally, we perceive
A: red
B: blackness
C: green
D: white
E: blue


The ______ ear collects sounds waves and transmits them to the _____ ear, which contains auditory ossicles
A: inner; middle
B: middle; inner
C: outer; middle
D: outer; inner
E: either B or D

outer; middle

The _____ covers most of the exposed surface of the eye
A: Cornea
B: Conjunctiva
C: Cathus
D: Iris
E: Anterior Chamber


Almost 75% of all parasympathetic outflow travels along the
A: facial nerves
B: splanchnic nerves
C: vagus nerves
D: trigeminal nerve
E: glossopharyngeal nerve

vagus nerve

An albino individual lacks the ability to produce
A: keratin
B: eleidin
C: melanin
D: perspiration
E: carotene


Mechanoreceptors that respond to changes in blood pressure called
A: chemoreceptors
B: theromoreceptors
C: nociceptors
D: baroreceptors
E: proprioceptors


The celiac ganglion innervates the
A: stomach
B: pancreas
C: liver
D: all of the above
E: A and C only

All of the above : stomach, pancreas, liver

Postganglionic axons usually are
A: larger than preganglionic fibers
B: unmyelinated
C: myelinated
D: located in the spinal cord
E: located in the brain


Accessory structures of the skin include all of the following, except
A: hair follicles
B: nails
C: epidermis
D: sweat glands
E: sebaceous glands


Clusters of ganglionic sympathetic neurons that innervate organs in the abdominopelvic region are called___ ganglia.
A: collateral
B: suprarenal
C: chain
D: collateral
E: prevertebral

collateral ganglia

The part of the eye that determines eye color is the
A: pupil
B: iris
C: conjunctiva
D: cornea
E: canal of schlemm


The vibrations received by the tympanic membrane are transferred to the oval window by the
A: stapedius muscle
B: tensor tympani
C: cochlea
D: oval window
E: auditory ossicles

auditory ossicles

Clusters of ganglionic sympathetic neurons lying along either side of the spinal cord are called sympathetic ___ ganglia.
A: intramural
B: suprarenal
C: chain
D: collateral
E: prevertebral

chain ganglia

Earwax is produced by ___ glands
A: merocrine sweat
B: apocrine sweat
C: ceruminous
D: sebaceous
E: eccrine sweat

ceruminous glands

Which of the following is true of the vascular tunic of the eye
A: regulates the amount of light entering the eye
B: secretes and reabsorbs the aqueous humor
C: controls the shape of the lens
D: provides a routh for blood vessels and lymphatics that supply tissue of the eye.
E: All of the above

All of the Above: regulates the amount of light entering the eye, secretes and reabsorbs the aqueous humor, controls the shape of the lens, provides a route for blood vessels and lymphatics that supply tissues of the eye

The palpebrae
A: contain tarsal glands
B: are controlled by cranial nerves
C: cover and protect the eye
D: support the lateral rectus muscle of the eye
E: A, B, and C

contain tarsal glands, are controlled by cranial nerves, cover and protect the eye, support the lateral rectus muscles of the eye

Changes in the CNS that accompany aging include
A: decreased blood flow to the brain
B: reduction in brain size and weight
C: decrease in the number of neurons
D: all of the above
E: B and C only

All of the above: decreased blood flow to the brain, reduction in brain size and weight, decrease in the number of neurons

A tactile receptor composed of highly coiled dendrites that are surrounded by modified Schwann cells and a fibrous capsule is a
A: lamellated corpuscle
B: ruffini corpuscle
C: root hair plexus
D: tactile (meissner) corpuscle
E: tactile (merkel) disc

tactile (Meissner) corpuscle

Which of the following is NOT one of the special senses
A: smell
B: hearing
C: vibration
D: taste
E: vision


Examples of sensory modalities include
A: smell
B: vibration
C: touch
D: warmth
E: all of the above

All of the above: smell, vibration, touch, warmth

The suprarenal medullae secrete
A: medullin
B: epinephrine
C: norepinephrine
D: renin
E: both B and C

epinephrine & norepinephrine

Only about ______ of the info provided by afferent fibers reaches the cerebral cortex and our awareness
A: 50
B: 10
C: 25
D: 95
E: 1


The layer of the skin that provides a barrier against bacteria as well as chemical and mechanical injuries is the
A: subcutaneous layer
B: epidermis
C: stratum corneum
D: sebum layer
E: dermis


The human lens focuses light on the photoreceptor cells by
A: changing shape
B: moving in and out
C: opening and closing
D: dilating and contricting
E: moving up and down

changing shape

A highly sensitive tactile receptor composed of dendritic processes of a single myelinated fiber that makes contact with specialized cells of the stratum germinativum is a
A: tactile (Meissner) corpuscle
B: tactile (Merkel) disc
C: Ruffini corpuscle
D: root hair plexus
E: lamellated corpuscle

tactile (Merkel) disc

Gustatory receptors are located
A: in the eye
B: on the surface of the tongue
C: in the ear
D: in the nose
E: on the skin

on the surface of the tongue

The basal nuclei
A: initiate conscious motor activity
B: provide the backgroud patterns of movement involved in voluntary motor activities.
C: exert direct control over lower motor neurons
D: act as gatekeepers, filtering out unneccesary sensorimotor activity.
E: activate spinal reflexes.

provide the background patterns of movement involved in voluntary motor activities

Treatment of full-thickness burns includes which of the following
A: assist tissue repair
B: increase caloric intake
C: prevent infection
D: replace fluids
E: all of the above

All of the above: assist tissue repair, increase caloris intake, prevent infection, replace fluids

Which of the following is essential for memory consolidation
A: basal nuclei
B: hippocampus
C: occipital lobe
D: insula
E: prefrontal lobe


Sound waves are converted into mechanical movements by the
A: cochlea
B: round window
C: auditory ossicles
D: tympanic membrane
E: oval window

tympanic membrane

Olfactory glands
A: support the olfactory epithelium
B: react to aromatic molecules
C: group as olfactory bulbs
D: coat the olfactory epithelium with a pigmented mucus.
E: house the sense of smell

coat the olfactory epithelium with a pigmented mucus

Our perception of our environment is imperfect for all of the following reasons, except that
A: receptors respond in an all-or-nothing manner
B: abnormal receptor function can produce sensations that have no basis in fact.
C: humans lack receptors for every possible stimulus.
D: not all sensations lead to a perception
E: our receptors have limited sensitivity

receptors respond in an all-or-nothing manner ???

The external ear ends at the
A: ossicles
B: cochlea
C: tympanic membrane
D: vestibule
E: pinna

tympanic membrane

The gelatinous material that gives the eyeball its base shape is the
A: posterior cavity
B: aqueous humor
C: ora serrata
D: perilymph
E: vitreous humor

vitreous humor

The largest number of taste buds in adults are associated with the
A: fungiform papillae
B: filiform papillae
C: circumvallate papillae
D: pharynx
E: larynx

circumvallate papillae

The middle ear communicates with the nasopharynx through the
A: auricle
B: membranous labyrinth
C: auditory tube
D: bony labyrinth
E: auditory meatus

auditory tube

A very large, fast-adapting tactile receptor that is compsoed of a single dendrite enclosed by concentric layers of collagen is a
A: root hair plexus
B: ruffini corpuscle
C: tactile (Merkel) disc
D: lamellated corpuscle
E: tactile (Meissner) corpuscle

lamellated corpuscle

Sensible perspiration is produced by___ glands
A: apocrine sweat
B: mammary
C: sebaceous
D: merocrine sweat
E: ceruminous

merocrine sweat glands

The layer of skin that contains the blood vessels and nerves that are closest to the surface of the skin is the___ layer
A: papillary
B: reticular
C: epidermal
D: subcutaneous
E: hypodermal

papillary layer

Which of the following is an example of a visceral reflex
A: pupillary reflex
B: defecation reflex
C: ejaculation in response to tactile stimuli
D: vomitting reflex
E: all of the above

All of the above: pupillary reflex, defecation reflex, ejaculation in response to tactile stimuli, vomiting reflex

Olfactory receptors send axons through the cribiform plate. They synapse on neurons in the
A: cerebral cortex
B: medial geniculate
C: olfactory tract
D: medulla oblongata
E: olfactory bulb

olfactory bulb

Collateral ganglia contain neurons that innervate tissues and organs in which cavity
A: thoracic
B: craniosacral
C: lumbar
D: abdominopelvic
E: both B and C


The auditory ossicles connect the
A: tympanic membrane to the round window
B: tympanic membrane to the oval window
C: oval window to the round window
D: otitis to the media
E: stapedius to the tympanic membrane

tympanic membrane to the oval window

Glands that discharge an oily secretion into hair follicles are____ glands
A: merocrine sweat
B: ceruminous
C: mammary
D: sebaceous
E: apocrine sweat

sebaceous glands

The two components of the integumentary system are the
A: cutaneous membrane and hypodermis
B: integument and hypodermis
C: cutaneous membrane and accessory structures
D: epidermis and superficial fascia
E: epidermis and dermis

cutaneous membrane and accessory structures

Autonomic tone is an important aspect of ANS function because it

allows ANS neurons to increase or decrease their activity, providing a range of control options

An important vitamin that is formed in the skin when it is exposed to sunlight is

Vitamin D

A fast-adapting tactile receptor that monitors movements across the body surface is a
A: tactile (Merkel) disc
B: Ruffini corpuscle
C: root hair plexus
D: lamellated corpuscle
E: tactile (Meissner) Corpuscle

root hair plexus

The opening in the iris through which light passes is the


Motor neurons whose cell bodies are within the spinal cord are called

lower motor neurons


are found within the dermis & are free nerve endings

An age-related decline in mental function characterized by difficulties with spatial orientation, memory, language, and personality is called

senile dementia

The layer of hard keratin that coats the hair is termed the


Variations in hair color reflect differences in the pigment produced by


Movement of the endolymph in the semicircular canals

signals rotational movements

A state of unconsciousness in which an individual can be aroused by a normal stimuli is


The term general senses refers to the sensitivity to all of the following, EXCEPT


A state of unconsciousness in which an individual cannot be aroused even by strong stimuli is


The ______ glands in the axilla become active at the time of puberty

apocrine sweat

Conversion of a short-term memory to a long-term memory is called

memory consolidation

In general, parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are _______ and postganglionic fibers are _______

myelinated, long; unmyelinated, short

Long-term memories that are with you for a lifetime are called

tertiary memories

The layer of the skin that contains bundles of collagen and elastic fibers responsible for the strength of the skin is the

reticular layer

During sympathetic activation, ________ occurs

elevated BP, heart rate, blood glucose and sweating

A child who skins his knee in a fall has an


Which of the following is NOT an effect of ultraviolet radiation


An adult has approximately ______ taste buds


Taste receptors are distributed in which of the following places

portions of the larynx, pharynx and surface of the tongue

The type of cells that form the strate (stratum corneum) in the epidermis are


Mechanoreceptors might detect which of the following sensations

muscle length, pressure, vibration, touch

The parasympathetic nervous system in especially active during which physiological state


Receptors that monitor the position of joints belong to the category called


The nail body covers the

nail bed

Olfactory information is first received by which part of the brain


The sympathetic division of the ANS is also known as which of the following

thorcolumbar division

The tough "horny" superficial layer of the epidermis is known as the

stratum corneum

Complex motor activities such as riding a bicycle

require the coordinated activity of several regions of the brain

Taste buds are monitored by which of the cranial nerves

glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) and facial nerve (VII)

An area of the retina that contains only cones and is the site of sharpest vision is the


The mucus that covers the olfactory epithelium does all of the following, EXCEPT that is

dissolves unwanted chemicals and washes them away

The effects of aging on the skin include

a decline in the activity of sebaceous glands

Which of the following is sometimes called "prickling pain"

fast pain

The transparent portion of the fibrous tunic is the


The layer of dividing cells at the base of the epidermis is the

stratum germinativum

Alzheimer disease is characterized by all of the following, EXCEPT that is

has a clear genetic basis

Endorphins can reduce perception of sensations initiated by

nociceptors (pain)

Which of the following would be an example of higher-level control of autonomic function

increased heart rate when you see a person you fear

We can localized sensations that originate in different areas of the body because

sensory neurons from specific body regions project to specific cortical regions

The _____ division of the autonomic nervous system is said to function during "rest and digest"


Preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system are located in the

lateral gray horns of segments T1 to L2 of the spinal cord

In the sympathetic nervous system, where are preganglionic neurons located

thoracic and lumbar segments of the spinal cord

The function of gustatory receptors parallels that of

olfactory receptors

Which of the following is a function of tear

provide oxygen, wash away debris, lubricate the eye, nourish the cornea and conjunctiva

Parasympathetic functions include all of the following, EXCEPT

dilation of the airways

A fast-adapting mechnoreceptor in the papillary layer of the dermis that responds to fine touch is a

tactile (Meissner) corpuscle

Dual innervation refers to an organ receiving

both sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation

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