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HBS Unit 4
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Describe how one of your range of motion measurements compares to the range of motion of another group. Explain why there might be differences.
My hip adduction range of motion was 110 degrees while Jaclyn's group's range was 91 degree, so my hip was more flexible than theirs. There's a difference because I stretch a lot.
State the synovial joint type you think allows for the greatest number of different movements. Explain your reasoning.
The ball and socket joint allows the greatest number of different movements in the body because it is multiaxial, allowing it to move up and down and left and right, as well as perform rotations.
State factors that might influence the range of motion of a joint.
Factors that might influence the range of motion of a join are age, sex, and if the individual has ever sustained tendon, ligament, or joint damage.
Explain how a person can improve flexibility at the joints.
A person can improve flexibility at their joints by holding a position that stretches the tendons and ligaments, such as holding their toes without bending their knees.
Your goniometer breaks. Describe another way you might be able to measure range of motion. You may use any other materials.
Using a protractor and two rulers, you basically have a goniometer broken into three pieces.
You overhear two men at the gym talking about their extensor muscles of the forearm. Based on what you know about the motion at joints, how would you describe the movement of these muscles?
I would describe the movement of these muscles as a pulling motion, because stretching it causes the muscles to elongate and relieve pressure.
Describe the structural differences you see in the three types of muscle tissues. Be sure your labels support these observations.
Skeletal muscle is striated, voluntary, shaped like logs, and have many nucleuses. Smooth muscle is nonstriated, involuntary, shaped like a spindle because of its fat center and tapering ends, and has one nucleus per cell. Cardiac muscle is striated, involuntary, branched, and also has one nucleus per cell.
Explain what it mean when we say a muscle contracts involuntarily. Name and describe one body function that is linked to an involuntary muscle contraction.
When a muscle contracts involuntarily, it means an individual doesn't need to consciously think to make the muscle work. Digestion is linked to involuntary muscle contraction because food is pushed through the small intestine to absorb nutrients, and this process is done without thinking about it.
Describe the structural makeup of a whole skeletal muscle. Explain how the structure contributes to the muscle's ability to do its job.
Skeletal muscle contains many nuclei in each muscle fiber, which allows the muscle to have a high concentration of mitochondria. The high amount of mitochondria allow muscles to perform actions that use bursts of energy, such as sprinting. The striations exist to help the skeletal muscle to contract quickly.
Using your knowledge of tissues, name the type of tissue you think makes up the three layers of membrane you made in your model.
I think skeletal muscle tissue made up the three layers of membrane in the model because the liquorice was parallel with each other, a feature unique to only the skeletal muscle tissue.
Skeletal Muscle Diagram
Explain how you know which attachment of a muscle is the origin and which attachment is the insertion.
Origins tend to be more proximal than insertions. Insertions also move towards the origin when the movement is occuring.
Your mom comes back from the doctor and says she has pulled her tibialis anterior. She knows you are taking Human Body Systems and asks you to tell her about her injury. Based on the classroom discussion, what can you deduce about this muscle?
Anterior means front, and tibialis indicates the tibia bone, so the muscle is in the front of her tibia.
When you are cold, your muscles begin to contract involuntarily and cause you to shiver. Why do you think this occurs? How does the contraction of muscles help the body maintain homeostasis?
Contractions generate heat because they help the body to burn sugar within the muscles, which will generate heat and bring the body's temperature back up to where it is supposed to be.
How can you determine function of a muscle simply by looking at the anatomy?
The origin and insertion can be determined by seeing which point is more proximal to the body, so you can tell how the muscle will move. Looking at which directions the striations on the muscle runs will also indicate how the muscle moves.
Using your muscular system graphic organizer and your notes, identify and describe the particular muscles that are involved in generating movement at a specific joint of the body.
The tricep medial head and the brachialis head flex and extend the arm at the elbow. The tricep medial head is the extensor and the brachialis is the flexor.
Describe how an injury to a muscle you built on your Maniken would impact total body function.
If an individual sustained a great injury to the muscle groups in their arm, they would not be able to flex or extend it at all.
When you see the glycerinated muscle fibers shorten, what do you think is actually happening in the muscle cells? Think about what you just saw under the microscope.
When the muscle fibers shorten, the muscle cells are contracting. You can tell because the striations become more bunched up.
Did your muscle samples eventually relax and return to the length they were before contraction? Thinking back to the muscles rules and how your know muscles work, why does this make sense?
The muscle samples did eventually relax because the glycerol began to wear off. This makes sense because the contraction activator was no longer present.
Which solution produced the greatest percent contraction of the muscles? What does this tell you about the requirements for contraction?
0.1% ATP in salt solution. This means that the requirement for contraction only needs ATP and salt.
Think about the way in which organ systems work together to kick your leg or swing your arm. Besides the skeletal and the muscular system, what other systems do you think are involved in moving the human machine?
The cardiovascular system pumps oxygen to the muscular system for cellular respiration. The nervous system sends signals to the muscles to contract.
Given the placement of the ulnar nerve, what type of forearm muscles do you think this nerve stimulates? Explain.
Due to the ulnar nerve's placement, it is able to stimulate flexor muscles. This is because the ulnar nerve is able to reach many flexor muscles due to being on the anterior side of the body.
Explain how the placement of the ulnar nerve is linked to the pain and discomfort you feel when you bang your "funny bone."
The placement of the ulnar nerve is linked to pain and discomfort because it is a sensitive area due to a lack of protective tissues surrounding it, such as muscle tissue and fat.
Given the placement of the radial nerve, what type of muscles do you think this nerve stimulates? Explain.
Due to the radial nerve's placement, it is able to stimulate extensor muscles. This is because the radial nerve is able to reach extensor muscles by being on the posterior side of the body.
What do you think would happen to a person's ability to use his/her arm if the radial nerve were damaged?
The person would no longer or have a great deal of trouble extending their arm.
Explain how the central and the peripheral nervous system work together to allow you to pick up a can of soda. Mention muscles of the forearm in your answer.
The peripheral nervous system deciphers signals from coming from around the individual, and the central nervous system sends these signals to the brain for interpretation. The reaction to the signals sent are decided by the brain, sent back down the peripheral nervous system to the arm, where the ventral muscles are stimulated to contract and grab the can.
Describe at least three different jobs that put workers at risk for carpal tunnel syndrome. How can these individuals lower their risk of injury?
Typing as a computer programmer, writing with pencil and paper, and playing a stringed instrument with a bow put stress on these worker's wrists. They can lower their risk of injury by stretching frequently and taking breaks.
What happens at the junction between a nerve and a muscle to initiate muscle contraction?
An action potential is sent to the muscle via acetylcholine, and calcium ions are produced. These calcium ions trigger the start of the muscle contraction.
How does the structure of smooth and cardiac muscle differ from the structure of skeletal muscle?
The structure of smooth muscle isn't striated and cardiac muscle is branched.
Explain how each of the three types of muscle assist with moving blood around the body.
Cardiac muscles pumps the blood from the heart throughout the body. Skeletal muscle produces the contractions that moves blood in the arteries. smooth muscle can be found around veins and contracts to move blood back to the heart
What role do valves play in the heart?
Valves prevent blood regurgitation in the heart while blood is being pumped.
Which structure in the heart functions as the natural pacemaker? What does this term mean?
The sinoatrial node acts as the natural pacemaker. This means that it regulates the body's heartbeat.
How does the movement of the electrical impulse relate to the contraction of the chambers of the heart?
The electrical impulse produces the contraction in the chambers of the heart.
What is the difference between pulmonary circulation and systemic circulation?
Pulmonary circulation refers to blood circulation to the lungs while systemic circulation refers to blood circulation throughout the body.
Thinking about function, explain why the left ventricle is much more muscular than the right ventricle.
The left ventricle pumps more blood, so it gets more exercise than the right ventricle.
Describe the role of smooth muscle in two human body systems other than the cardiovascular system.
The intestinal tract is lined with smooth muscle to push food through it. The bladder has smooth muscle to push urine out of the body.
How does electrical communication in the heart compare to electrical communication in skeletal muscles?
Electrical communication in the heart is self contained as it doesn't need assistance from other body systems to complete its purpose. Skeletal muscles need an action potential from the nervous system to start of the reaction that allow for actions to take place.
List and describe at least three body systems that help in the regulation and control of blood pressure.
The urinary, endocrine, and cardiovascular system help in the regulation and control of blood pressure. Water retention and excretion affects blood volume, hormones can widen or narrow blood vessels, and increase in heart rate can control blood pressure.
What is the ankle brachial index (ABI) and how is it computed?
The ABI is used to compare blood pressure in your ankle to the blood pressure in your arm. This information is used to diagnose peripheral artery disease. It is computed by dividing the blood pressure in your ankle by the systolic blood pressure in the arm.
How does ABI relate to blood pressure?
ABI measures the blood pressure in your ankle and arm to show how well blood moves throughout your body.
What is the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure? To compute an ABI, we use only the systolic blood pressure.
Systolic pressure is the pressure in the arteries when ventricles are contracted to its utmost potential, and diastolic pressure is pressure in the arteries when ventricles are relaxing. Systolic blood pressure is used in ABI because it will show if blood is having a hard time moving through ventricles due to diseases like peripheral artery disease.
What are the two main divisions of the peripheral nervous system? How do these systems relate to the three types of muscle?
The two main divisions are the Somatic Nervous System and Autonomic Nervous System. The Somatic Nervous System controls the skeletal muscle system as well as the external sensory. The autonomic nervous system controls involuntary muscle systems such as smooth muscle and cardiac muscle.
Why is the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system active just before the race?
The sympathetic nervous system mobilizes the body's resources under stress to induce the fight or flight response.
How does the nervous system influence other body systems at the start of the race?
The nervous system takes in sensory information sends it to the brain, where it is processed. From there, the brain determines what action the body should do from moving the body to signalling the release of hormones.
What is happening to the digestive and urinary systems at the start of the race? Why?
What is happening to Mary's blood glucose levels right before the race? Relate this change to energy and ATP.
Her body will need energy before the race, so her body will convert glucose into ATP, so glucose levels will lower as ATP in the body increases via aerobic respiration.
Why does her mouth feel dry?
She is sweating out a lot of the water in her body. She is becoming dehydrated. Since the system isn't working as well as it could, her saliva glands are not working as well.
Running at a sprint puts new demands on Mary's body. What are these demands and how are they being met?
Mary is burning ATP faster because the muscles are contracting and firing messages faster. Producing more ATP requires more oxygen for your body.
Why do Mary's muscles feel like they are burning? Relate this burn to information about ATP production.
The burning feeling is lactic acid build up. Her body is working so hard that her body can not physically get enough oxygen to those muscles, so it is producing lactic acid instead of using aerobic respiration.
Why does Mary's respiratory rate increase as she starts to run? Provide two reasons.
Her heart is working harder to supply oxygen and blood to her body. Muscles are using more ATP, so she needs more oxygen.
How does Mary's increase in heart rate relate to cardiac output?
They are related because an increase in the cardiac output is due to the increase of both the heart rate as well as the stoke volume.
How does the nervous system interact with the cardiovascular and respiratory systems to increase the blood flow to the muscles?
The nervous system sends messages that tell the blood vessels dilate, increasing the amount of oxygen in the bloodstream. This increases blood flow to the muscles.
Why does Mary's body temperature start to increase? What is one of the main by-products of muscle contraction?
Mary's body temperature starts to increase due to muscle contraction. One of the main by products of muscle contraction is lactic acid, which helps maintain exercise.
How does sweat work for the body?
Sweat is used by the body to cool down body temperature to bring it back to homeostasis
What part of the brain helps stimulate the sweat glands in the skin?
The part of the brain that helps stimulate sweat glands is the hypothalamus.
How does the urinary system deal with the loss of water through sweat? What did Mary do before the race to try to alleviate this conflict?
When you lose water through sweat, the collecting ducts in your urinary system open up, collecting more nutrients and water from your urine, for your body to use as energy. To help prepare her body for the race, Mary drank a lot of water to stay hydrated.
Why does Mary feel a bit more comfortable during the middle of the race? Where is she drawing her energy at this point?
In the middle of the race, you feel better because your body is used to the energy usage. Now that Mary has used up the initial energy source, she is pulling energy from the oxygen she breathes in, which breaks glucose down into ATP.
Why does Mary feel dizzy at the end of the race?
Your blood vessels dilate to support your blood flow during exercise. When you stop running, especially if it's abruptly, your heart rate slows, which decreases blood flow. However, your blood vessels remain expanded. This can decrease your blood pressure, resulting in dizziness.
Why is Mary's heart rate and breathing rate so high even though she has stopped moving?
Her body is repaying the oxygen debt.
Why did Mary only sip water at the end of the race? What could happen if she drank water too fast?
It was important for her to drink water to replenish the fluids lost after her workout, but if she drank too much water too fast she could experience water intoxication or a dangerous health condition called hyponatremia. This causes the body cells and brain cells to swell, causing the brain cells damage.
What division of the autonomic nervous system is at work now? How does this division impact Mary's other body systems?
Parasympathetic nervous system works to save energy. This is when blood pressure can decrease, pulse rate can slow, and digestion can start. Saliva and mucus production is increased along with urine secretion.
Explain how Mary could have lost four pounds in such a short period.
Her body used stored glycogen as a source of energy. Using it caused her to lose the four pounds.
How will Mary's actions and her endocrine system work to bring her body back into water balance?
Why do Mary's muscles still feel so sore?
The lactic acid has built up since she used glycolysis to produce energy at one point in the race. The lactic acid build up is causing her soreness
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