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30 terms

Animal Behavior

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Ethology
Scientific study of animal behavior , particurlarly in their natural environments.
Proximate causation
'How' a behavior occcurs or is modified but also the effects of heredity on behavior, genetic-environnmental interactions, and sensory-motor mechanisms.
Ultimate causation
'Why' questions and includes studies of the origin of a behavior, its change over time, and the utility of the behavior in terms of reproductive success.
behavioral ecology
Study of the ecological and evolutionary basis for animal behavior.
Fixed action pattern
Sequence of unlearned acts that is largely unchangeable and usually carried to completion once its initiated. Fixed action patterns are triggered by sign stimuli.
Sign stimulus
Trigger ; external cue
Kinesis
Simple change in activity in response to a stimulus
Taxis
Automatic movement toward or away from a stimulus.
circadian clock
An internal mechanism that maintains a 24-hour activity rythms or cycle.
Circadian rythms
Occur on a daily circle. Behavioralcycle o rythms linked to the yearly cycle of seasons
Migration
Complex behavior seen in a wide variety of animals. Navigation may be by detection of the earth's magnetic field or visual cues.
Signal
Behavior that causes a change in the behavior of another individual and is the basis for animal communication
Pheromones
Chemical signals that are emitted by members of one species that affect other members of the species.
Visual signals
Such as the warning flash of white of a mockingbird's wing
Auditory signals
Such as the screech of a blue jay or song of a warbler.
circannual rythm
Behavioral rythms linked to the yearly cycle of seasons
stimulus-response-chain
Th response to each stimulus is itself the stimulus for the next behavior.
chemical communication
Transmission and receptionn of signals in the form of specific molecules.
diurnal
activa=e mainly in daytime
innate behavior
unlearned , developmentally fixed, behaviors
learning
the modification of behavior based on specific experiences
habituation
Loss of responsiveness to stimuli that convey little or no new information.
Imprinting
Formation at a specific stage in life of a long-lasting behavioral response to a particular individual or object.
Spatial learning
Establishment of a memory that reflects the environnment's spatial structure
Cognitive map
Internal representation of spatial relationships among objects in an animal's surroundings.
Associative learning
Ability of many animals to associate one feature of their environnment with another feature
Classical conditioning
Arbitrary stimulus becomes associated with a particular outcome.
Operant conditioning
Occurs as an animal learns to associate one of its behaviors with a reward or punishment
Cognition
Ability of an animal's nervous system to perceive,store,process, and use information from sensory receptors.
problem solving
Cognitive acivity of devising a method to proceed from one state to another in the face of real or apparent obstacles.