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recommended studying and testing different work methods to identify the best, most efficient ways to complete a job
Frederick W. Taylor
the father of scientific management, managers should follow four scientific management principles
First scientific management principle
study each element of work to determine the "one best way" to do it
Second scientific management principle
scientifically select, train, teach, and develop workers to reach their full potential
Third scientific management principle
cooperate with employees to ensure implementation of the scientific principles
Fourth scientific management principle
divide the work and the responsibility equally between management and workers
these principles could be used to align managers and employees by determining a "fair day's work," and "a fair day's pay," and that incentives were one of the best ways to align management and employees
best known for the Gantt chart, which graphically indicates when a series of tasks must be completed to perform a job or project, but he also developed ideas regarding pay-for-performance plans (where workers were rewarded for producing more but were not punished if they didn't) and worker training (all workers should be trained and their managers should be rewarded for training them)
came up with the idea that bureaucracy would accomplish organizational goals much more efficiently than monarchies and patriarchies, where decisions were based on personal or family connections, personal gain, and arbitrary decision making
is running organizations on the basis of knowledge, fairness, and logical rules and procedures
Bureaucracies are characterized by seven elements
qualification-based hiring; merit-based promotion; chain of command; division of labor; impartial application of rules and procedures; recording rules, procedures, and decisions in writing; and separating managers from owners
The Frenchman Henri Fayol
best known for developing five management functions (planning, organizing, coordinating, commanding, and controlling) and 14 principles of management (division of work, authority and responsibility, discipline, unity of command, unity of direction, subordination of individual interests to the general interest, remuneration, centralization, scalar chain, order, equity, stability of tenure of personnel, initiative, and esprit de corps). He is also known for his belief that management could and should be taught to others
14 principles of management
division of work, authority and responsibility, discipline, unity of command, unity of direction, subordination of individual interests to the general interest, remuneration, centralization, scalar chain, order, equity, stability of tenure of personnel, initiative, and esprit de corps
Mary Parker Follett
believed that human relations management should be embraced and not avoided, and that, of the three ways of dealing with conflict (domination, compromise, and integration), the latter was the best because it focuses on developing creative methods for meeting conflicting parties' needs
The Hawthorne Studies
demonstrated that workers' feelings and attitudes affected their work, that financial incentives weren't necessarily the most important motivator for workers, and that group norms and behavior play a critical role in work behavior
uses a quantitative or mathematical approach to find ways to increase productivity, improve quality, and manage or reduce costly inventories
obtain inputs from the general and specific environments. Managers and workers then use their management knowledge and manufacturing techniques to transform those inputs into outputs, which, in turn, provide feedback to the organization. Organizational systems must also address the issues of synergy, open versus closed systems, and entropy
contingency approach to management
precisely states that there are no universal management theories. The most effective management theory or idea depends on the kinds of problems or situations that managers or organizations are facing at a particular time. This means that management is much harder than it looks
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