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Dear Freshmen, Please understand: This was made in 2008, but the information is still probably relevant. This was made to assist in your learning process. This is NOT a replacement to writing notecards. This should NOT be the only way for you to study. This does NOT guarantee you an easy A. In fact, if this IS the only way you study, you WILL fail. What this is made to be is an assistance for studying probably the hardest exam you will take your first year at the high school. And in that…


Beginning of the Stone Age. The use of primitive stone tools were used., second part of the Stone Age beginning about 750,00 to 500,000 years BC and lasting until the end of the last ice age about 8,500 years BC


The middle of the Stone Ages. Had the first use of the canoe.


The later part of the Stone Age. Weapons made of stone were created in this part of the Stone Age.


The extinct species of humans that lived in Mesolithic times. They were the first to bury their dead with items, suggesting some concept of the afterlife.

Cro Magnon

The forerunner of modern man, more recent and human-ish than Neanderthals


Early form of writing that uses symbols to express thoughts.

Rosetta Stone

Allowed hieroglyphics to be translated.


Egyptian pharaoh that created the first Egyptian dynasty after uniting Upper and Lower Egypt.

Ramses II

The third and most powerful pharaoh of Egypt. Also called "the builder" because of the things he built. Had an incredibly long reign.


The earliest known form of writing. "Wedged Writing"

Nebuchadnezzar II

Ruler of Babylon. Noted for the massive buildings he was responsible for.


Persian prophet and founder of Zoroastrianism.


Father of the Jews.


Created the Ten Commandments.


King of Israel (father of Solomon.) Considered extremely holy and the model for all political leaders in Judaism


King of Israel (son of David). Known for wealth, wisdom, and his temple


A person originally from Arabia. Babylonians, Arabs, Hebrews

Gift of the Nile

Refers to how the Nile River helped the Egyptians. It gave them protection, transportation, and food.


A group of people from the region near modern day Pakistan. Best known for language, and assimilated into other groups.

Fertile Crescent

Land in the Middle East where agriculture is rich.


Have temples and a government building. Most famous is Athens. Highest point in the city.


Related to Pan Hellenism. Is the Greeks' common ancestor


Means "wise." Believed in memorization and rhetoric, and thought that math and music were most important. Also believed that a good education led to being a good citizen.


Means "lover of wisdom."


Created the Socratic Method. Famous quotes: "Know thyself," and "Life not examined is not worth living." Critical of democracy.


Student of Socrates. Believed that truth and beauty were most important. Wrote "The Republic," and criticized democracy.


Student of Plato. Believed in a system of classification, and that you learned through observation. Also thought that logic and reason were most important.

Peloponnesian Wars

Wars that involved Athens vs. Sparta. Started when Athens violated a peace treaty. As a result, Sparta became a major power.

Alexander the Great

Taught by Aristotle. Had a love of all things Greek, and believed that he descended from Achilles. He was bent on conquest.


Means "Greek." Note that Hellenistic means "Greek-like"


An official in Ancient Sparta. Their job was to uphold the rules of the Kings of Sparta.


A prophet in ancient Greece. People believed them to be the envoys of the gods, but often they could be bribed by kings.


A soldier in ancient Greece.


Considered to be the first historian.

Delian league

An alliance of Greek City-States. Fought against the Peloponnessians in the Peloponnesian Wars.

Peloponnesian League

An alliance of Peloponnesian states. Formed as a result of the Peloponnesian Wars.

Philip (II) of Macedonia

Conquered all of the Greeks by 338 B.C. , and ended all of their democracies. When the Greeks rebelled, he was assassinated.

Persian Wars

499-479 B.C. Greek city states vs. Persia. As a result, Spartans were recognized as great fighters (Thermoplyae), Delian and Pelponnesian Leagues formed, and the Classical Age began.


The prime minister of Piedmont-Sardinia during the movement toward Italian unification. He is considered the architect of the Italian Unification.


The leader of the "Red Shirts", this man invaded and captured Sicily.

Victor Emmanuel II

The first king of Piedmont Sardinia

Roman Question

Refers to how Italy gain control of Rome without going to war against France

Wilhelm I

The first "Kaiser" of the Empire of Germany

Otto von Bismarck

The architect of German unification, Prime Minister under Wilhelm I

Ems Dispatch

A telegram from Bismarck that gave the impression that the French had insulted Prussia. Caused France to declare war.


The title for a king of Germany


"World Politics"

White Man's Burden

The belief that Europeans must spread Christianity to the Americas, Africa, and Asia

Dr. David Livingstone

This man made Africa look like heaven which caused a scramble for Africa.

British East India Trading Company

A corporation set in charge of India rather than an actual government because India is so far away from Britain

Sepoy Mutiny

Rebellion of Indian men in Britain's military. Caused the removal of the British East India Company.

Boxer Rebellion

The war in which the "Fist of Righteous Harmony" called for anything Western to be destroyed and killed many Europeans.

Berlin Conference

An agreement that stated a country must have a military presence in an area to claim it.


A Dutch person in Africa

Romulus and Remus

The brothers raised by wolves who created Rome.


A noble or wealthy person of Ancient Rome.


A middle or lower class citizen of Ancient Rome. Anyone not a Patrician.


The political body made up of 300 rulers that made laws in Ancient Roman. Served for life.


The two leaders of Ancient Rome. Served for a year.


Had complete control of Ancient Rome for 6 months during emergencies.

12 Tables

The law that Rome went by.

Punic Wars

Three wars between Rome and Carthage that led to the expansion of Rome.


Carthaginian general who fought Rome with War Elephants in the Second Phase of the Punic Wars.


Roman general who defeated Hannibal.

Gracchi brothers

Two brothers who led Rome politically. Tiberius wanted to give land to farmers to increase agriculture, but the problem was solved when the Romans got land from a king in Asia Minor. He was killed by a mob of senators. Gaius wanted to sell cheap grain to the poor and make all Italians citizens of Rome (important for voting and the like). Gaius committed suicide from shame when his plan didn't work.


Also called nobiles, these people were a class that developed as the Roman Republic became the Empire; the purpose of the class was to serve the Empire


Everyone not an optimate; the people who did not serve the Roman government

Gaius Marius

A Roman general appointed be the Senate to capture Jugurtha of Northern Africa. He reformed the military into a much more efficient system, making sure that all soldiers were professionals that had no family and all soldiers were paid directly by their commanders, a key part of Caesar's rise to power later on.

Cornelius Sulla

Second in command to Gaius Marius, he had extensive power struggles with his commander and then declared a dictatorship. Under his reign he made several reforms, most importantly that only the Senate could declare war and that soldiers had to stay in their assigned provinces (important when Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon)


Was part of the Roman Triumvirate, and was lieutenant of Sulla. He took credit for repressing the slave revolts led by Spartacus, even though Crassus actually stopped them. His ultimate goal was to get land in the east for veterans.

Julius Caesar

Captured Gaul and Britannia, and had popularity with the public. His ultimate goal was to create a 5 year military campaign in Gaul.


One of the second Triumvirate, he took control of Julius Caesar's troops after his death. He was victorious is his civil war with the East (commanded by Antony). In his reign taxes were more regulated, childless couples were taxed, subjugated provinces kept their monarchs, and emperor worship began

Mark Antony

Part of the second triumvirate, he opposed Octavian in the East/West power split, and controlled the Asian regions. He married Cleopatra and together they lost the war with the West after losing the battle of Actium. He committed suicide.


Considered the son of God by Christians, he taught that God is loving (rather than wrathful), forgiving, and that he was the Messiah, or Christ.


Converted to Christianity while traveling to Damascus, he is considered the first major missionary. His writing have defined principles and practices within Christianity.

Pax Romana

Latin for Roman Peace, it was a period of peace and prosperity for the Roman Empire. It lasted from the reign of Augustus Caesar (Octavian) to that of Markus Aurelius (that is, 27 BC to 180 AD). In this period, Christianity formed and rose in popularity.


An emperor, he killed his mother Agrippina in a power struggle. Considered insane, he did nothing as Rome burned (some accuse him of arson, he built a palace on the burnt area later) and had several military leaders assassinated.


Rose to power through the military and was crowned emperor by his soldiers. He divided the Roman Empire into East (capital was Nicomedia) and West (capital was Milan).


First Christian emperor of Rome, he repealed all anti Christian laws in the Roman Empire and renamed Byzantium, moving the capital of East Rome to it


Tried to restore former glory of Roman Empire, built Hagia Sophia (largest church until 1453 when it became a mosque)

East Orthodox Church

The oldest church, remained in the east after the Westerners became Catholic. Basic Beliefs (aside from the obvious): priests can marry, mass can be given in any language, the patriarch (leader of the church) chosen by emperor, uses iconography

Ottoman Empire

Replaced the Byzantine (East Roman) Empire. After the Crusades and the Catholic sacking of Constantinople (about 1100-1300) the empire steadily lost land and power. When the Ottomans had Constantinople completely surrounded and the empire was crumbling, the last emperor said that his title should've been mayor. The final fall of the east was in 1453.


The system in which privileges and responsibility are tied to property ownership and one's place in society.


The practice of giving the oldest son the inheritance.


The code of conduct for knights, it elevates women.


Sacred rituals performed by the Catholic church. There are seven: baptism, confirmation, marriage, communion, penance, holy order (that is, becoming a priest), and extreme unction (words spoken at the death bed).


When an individual is denied the holy sacraments by the church, often a method used by the Pope to have power over monarchs.


Going against the church (particularly the Catholic Church).


A brutally violent church trial, often intended to torture a conversion out of someone. The Spanish Inquisition was by far the worst.


Holy wars declared by the Pope. There were four major ones: the first captured the Holy Land for the Catholics, the second was a failed attempt to get land that had been regained by the Muslims, third was mainly holding Saladin back and getting loot off to jolly old England, and fourth was when the Catholics effectively sacked Constantinople and butchered the Orthodox.

Pope Urban II

The Pope that called for the first Crusade in 1095.


The Muslim general during the Crusades, he managed to regain a lot of territory lost in the first Crusade, defeat the second Crusade, and have a treaty in the third.


A group of workers in a specific field (e.g. masonry), not unlike today's unions. Often the guilds nurtured apprenticeships and the like.

Hanseatic League

A trade alliance formed in the Crusades


The language of the people (such as English, when French was used in the government and Latin in the Church)


An architectural type which has thick walls, barrel vaulted ceilings, small windows, and not terribly tall buildings


Another architectural type, which had tall buildings, flying butresses, thin walls, large windows, elaborate decoration, and ribbed vaulting


The head of the Catholic Church, also known as the Pontifex Maximus (Latin for the greatest bridge maker) or Pontiff, he held great political power in the middle ages


The second highest major position in Catholicism. The cardinals appointed the Pope, and wore red


About 1300-1500, the word is French and means "rebirth". A period of European prosperity caused by: the Crusades, the plague, banking and the rise of money, the fall of Constantinople, and new technologies. The three main cities were Florence, Milan, and Venice

Medici Family

Controlled Florence during Renaissance, were wealthy bankers and the patrons of many important works of art, they invented the Florin (a currency)


The theory that God equips you with the ability/potential to do what he calls you to do. Founded by Petrarch.


The founder of Humanism


A Dutch theologian who humanized Christianity, believing that human reason can solve problems. He (verbally) attacked corruption within the Church, and had a large impact on Martin Luther


Wrote "The Prince", a guide to unite Italy. He believed that Italy's uner, and willing to do anything for succeification required a master leader who would be: non-Christian, ruthless, a soldiss. The new leader would have to believe that it it "better to be feared than loved".

Sir Thomas More

Served under Henry VIII of England, wrote "Utopia". Utopia (literally translated from Greek means "no place") was about the perfect society. It had religious freedom, except for atheism, because religion implies obedience and a desire for peace. It said that any work gets economic security, and is the near opposite of Machiavelli's "The Prince".


The refusal of Catholicism and Catholic beliefs (not including Orthodoxy). This led to many seperate Churches, rather than simply the two major ones.


Started by Pope Leo X to pay for the construction of St. Peter's Basilica. Basically, they were when you could buy the good acts of prominent religious figures, (i.e. the Apostle Paul). This was very controversial and started up Martin Luther.

Martin Luther

Considered the founder of Protestantism, he strongly objected to the selling of indulgences. On October 31, 1517 (important date), he nailed the 95 Theses to the door of a church, which stated the things he found wrong with the Church. In 1520, a Papal Bull (that is, an order from the Pope) demanded him to recant, but he burned it.

Louis XI (the Spider)

Broke the power of the Burgundians, France became a nation-state under his rule. Known for his intrigue.

Henry (IV) of Navarre

A Huguenot ruler of France turned Catholic to appease his critics. Later changes his name to Henry IV, and becomes very popular. Assassinated by a religious fanatic. Also made the Edict of Nantes.

Bourbon Dynasty

Henry of Navarre's Dynasty, the most powerful after the fall of the Hapsburgs


French Calvinists, believe in predestination.

Louis XIII

Son of Henry IV, advised by Cardinal Richelieu

Cardinal Richelieu

Chief advisor for Louis XIII, basically ran France. Came up with the idea of Mercantilism, (exports > imports) and orchestrated the 30 years war to benefit France when the Hapsburgs fell. He also lessened the power of the nobles in France to increase Louis XIII's power.

Thirty Years War

(1618-1648). Caused by the Peace of Augsburg (1555), which recognized religious freedom for Catholics and Lutherans. Catholics were upset that Calvinists began moving into the Holy Roman Empire. This one actually lasted how long it's called, unlike the Hundred Years War.


A Germanic tribe that settled in Gaul after Western Rome's fall from the 400's.


Administrators for French monarchs, they held real power during the reign of the "Do Nothing" Kings

Charles Martel

A mayor, nicknamed the Hammer, he won the battle of Tours in 732 and stopped the Muslim advance into Western Europe. His men wanted him crowned, but he declined.


Wanted to unite Germanics, saved Pope Leo III from an angry mob and was named Emperor of the Romans

Philip II

Called Philip Augustus. He went on the third Crusade for France, but left pretty quickly so that Richard I would get killed in the war. He acquired Normandy, Flanders, and Anjou. Not pals with Richard.

Philip IV

Called Philip the Fair, this French king created the Estates-General and tried to have his own Pope because he wanted to tax the Church.


People that advised the French king, broken into three parts (nobles, clergy, and common folk). It later spurred on the French Revolution

Babylonian Captivity

Refers to when Philip IV moved the papacy to Avignon. The Cardinals elected another Pope, and the other countries chose a third one. Eventually it was narrowed down to a single pope.

Joan of Arc

In the Hundred Year's War she served as a fulfillment of prophesy and led French troops to victory against the English. She was captured by the Burgundians and sold to the English, who tried her for witchcraft and burned her at the stake. Her death was the turning point for France.

Valois Dynasty

A dynasty in France created by Philip VI. Henry III of France was its last king, due to Salic Law

Hapsburg Dynasty

A family that controlled Spain, part of Italy, and part of the Holy Roman Empire. It was extremely powerful until the Thirty Years' War

Peace of Augsburg

Peace between the Lutherans and Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire. Caused the Thirty Years' War because Calvinists were migrating to the Holy Roman Empire out of France.

Christian IV

A Danish king, he aided the Lutherans in the Thirty Years' War

Gustavus Adolphus

A Swedish leader who fought against the Catholics in the Thirty Years' War. Successful at first, but when he died Sweden asked for peace.

Peace of Westphalia

In 1648, it was the first major European peace conference where the Pope was not present. In it, Switzerland and the Netherlands were recognized as independent.

Angles and Saxons

Germanic tribe in the 500's. The legend of King Arthur originates from these guys.

William of Normandy

Defeated Harold Godwine for the throne at the Battle of Hastings in 1066. AKA William the conqueror and William I of England.

Henry II

Ruled England and married Eleanor of Aquitane, thereby giving him control over 1/2 of France. Also claimed Scotland, Wales, Ireland and established the idea of "Common Law". Friends with Thomas a Beckett

King John

Ruled as a tyrant, raised the taxes to pay for Crusades, leading to unpopularity. Forced to sign the Magna Carta in 1215 at Runnymede (muy importante)

War of the Roses

Civil war for English Throne. Yorks (white rose) vs Lancasters (red rose). Henry Tudor marries Elizabeth of York and becomes Henry VII to end the war.

Henry VIII

Called the "Defender of the Faith" for working against Martin Luther, he married Catherine of Aragon and had a daughter but wanted a male heir. Passed the Act of Supremacy and created the Anglican Church because he wanted an annulment to his marriage to Catherine of Aragon, which the Pope refused.The Act of Supremacy also gave him ownership of church land.

James I

The English king who came up with "Divine Right of Kings", the idea that God had hand-chosen the monarchs to rule, and if you question them then you question God.

Charles I

Son of James I, forced to sign "Petition of Rights" in 1628 by Parliament, an attempt to limit the monarchs power. It was under his rule that the Long Parliament occurred, lasting from 1640 to 1660

English Civil War

Monarch vs. Parliament. Kings Supporters: Cavaliers, Church of England supporters" Catholics, Royalists. Parliament supporters: Puritans, Oliver Cromwell, Roundheads

Charles II

Great London Fire occurred under his rule (1666, easy to remember). John Milton also wrote Paradise Lost during that time.


The British political party that favored the monarch and Anglican church


The British political party that favored Parliament and religious tolerance because many of them were Puritan

James II

Protestant ruler of England who later converted to Catholicism and tried to convert England aswell. Warming Pan Baby controversy, people thought he had an illegitimate son. John Churchill saved his hide from an attempt to overthrow him by rallying loyal troops.

Glorious Revolution

AKA Bloodless Revolution. James II flees in 1689 when Parliament asks William of Orange (III) and his wife, Mary (II) , to take the throne.

English Bill of Rights (1689)

A document stating that no Roman Catholics could ever take the English Throne.

Act of Settlement (1701)

The law stating that the English throne would pass on to a protestant, not James II's child (the warming pan baby) because William and Mary had no children.

Act of Union (1707)

The law that united England (Wales) and Scotland to create the United Kingdom/Britian

George I

Didn't speak English, had to deal which the Jacobites: people who wanted the Stuart family back on the throne

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