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Strayer Ch 22
Terms in this set (28)
the undoing of colonialism, where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over dependent territories
Indian National Congress (INC)
A movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government.
a political leader and the undoubted spiritual leader of the Indian drive or independence from Great Britain
the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence.
a response to the Indian national Congress in India's struggle for independance from Britain
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Leader of India's All India Muslim League and first president of the breakaway state of Pakistan
a policy or system of segregation or discrimination on grounds of race.
the sector of the white population of South Africa that was descended from early Dutchsettlers
South African nationalist and leader of the African National Congress who was imprisoned for twenty seven years
African Nation Congress (ANC)
South African political party established in 1912 by elite Africans who sought to win full acceptance in colonial society
term that has been emerging in transnational and postcolonial studies to refer to what used to be called the "Third World"
Turkish statesman who abolished the caliphate and founded Turkey as a modern secular
Islamic canonical law based on the teachings of the Koran and the traditions of the Prophet
was the Shah of Iran (Persia) from 15 December 1925 until he was forced to abdicate by the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran on 16 September 1941.
became the leader of Iran's Islamic revolution and ruled Iran from 1979 until his death in 1989
events involving the overthrow of the Pahlavi dynasty under Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi
What was the "fatal flaw" of European colonialism?
a. Its double standard of freedom and sovereignty for itself but not its colonies
b. Its inability to extract resources from its colonies
c. Its squeamishness at using force to rule its colonies
d. Its promotion of nationalist ideology
Which of the following social groups in the colonies did NOT stand to benefit from national independence for African and Asian colonies?
a. Western-educated African and Asian elites
b. small-scale traders
c. urban workers
d. white landowners
Which of the following best characterizes the initial aims of the Indian National Congress (INC)?
a. A violent revolution against the British rule
b. Promoting loyal obedience to the British rule
c. Gaining position of influence in British India to protect Indian interests
d. Writing a constitution for a newly independent India
Which of the following best characterizes Gandhi's philosophy of satyagraha ("truth force")?
a. Building a base of support in the countryside among peasants from which to launch guerilla attacks on the British
b. Confronting the British Empire nonviolently, choosing to suffer the consequences without surrendering one's ideals
c. Throwing off British rule by any means necessary, and then conquering new lands as the British had done for a new Indian Empire
d. Making India totally and permanently Hindu
What was the most serious split that formed within the Indian independence movement?
a. Between upper castes and lower castes
b. Between Sikhs and Hindus
c. Between followers of Gandhi and followers of Nehru
d. Between Muslims and Hindus
What best describes the experience of India's partition into Muslim Pakistan and Hindu India after independence in 1947?
a. It was a mostly peaceful transition.
b. It caused massive displacement of people, but no real violence.
c. It happened in a carefully controlled way over a long period of time.
d. It was horrendously violent and traumatic.
Why did white rule last almost 50 years longer in South Africa than it did in India (1994 versus 1947)?
a. Blacks in South Africa were much better treated than Indians in British India.
b. Blacks chose the path of violence, which was futile, as opposed to nonviolence, which the Indians used to great effect.
c. A sizeable and powerful community of permanent white settlers in South Africa, but not in India, controlled the country.
d. Gandhi never spent time in South Africa.
What kind of external pressure was put on South Africa's white leadership to end Apartheid and allow blacks to vote and have equal rights?
a. NATO threatened to invade South Africa.
b. Other independent African countries threatened to invade South Africa.
c. The U.S. government loudly denounced the immorality of Apartheid and broke off diplomatic relations with the racist government.
d. Sporting events, entertainers, and many large businesses boycotted South Africa, isolating it culturally and economically from much of the world.
What was the fate of many of the political parties that had led the movements for independence in Africa after independence was achieved?
a. Most were soon swept away by military coups.
b. Most remained popular for decades.
c. Most splintered into different factions which gave rise to a vibrant democracy.
d. In formerly British colonies, democratic systems remained, but in French, Belgian, and Portuguese colonies, military regimes quickly took power.
How did Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the founder of modern Turkey, view the role of Islam in the state?
a. He based his ideas of the state on Islamic principles.
b. He saw the public or political role of Islam as an obstacle to modernizing Turkey.
c. He disliked the influence of Islam, but knew he was powerless to diminish it.
d. He was determined to use the state to wipe out all traces of Islam.
What effect did the Westernizing influences under the Shah of Iran have?
a. Iran became a well-functioning democracy.
b. Iran was too traditional to be impacted by Westernization.
c. It provoked an intense backlash leading to the Islamic revolution in 1979.
d. It led to a bloody civil war between Sunni and Shiite Muslims in Iran.
What happened to the living standards in most of Africa between 1980 and 2000?
a. They rose.
b. They remained steady.
c. They fell.
d. They rose in some countries, but fell in others.
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