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Chapter 26: Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid Base Balance
Terms in this set (75)
What is the percentage of water in infants?
73% or more ( low body fat, low bone mass)
What is the percentage of water in adult males?
What is the percentage of water in adult females?
50% (higher fat content)
Which tissue in the human body is the least hydrated?
Adipose, or fat tissue
The universal solvent
Two main fluid compartments in the body
Intracellular and extracellular fluid compartments
Fluid in the cells accounts for 2/3 of the total body fluid
Intracellular fluid compartment
Compartment with 1/3 of total body fluid; outside of cells
Extracellular fluid compartment
Substances that dissolve in water
Classifications of solutes
Electrolytes and nonelectrolytes
Most organic molecules; DO NOT dissociate in water
Examples of nonelectrolytes
Glucose, lipids, creatinine, urea
Dissociate into ions in water; conduct electrical current
Examples of electrolytes
Inorganic salts, all acids and bases; some proteins
ECF major cation and anion
Cation: sodium; Anion: chlorine
ICF major cation and anion
Cation: potassium; Anion: HPO4^(2-)
As ECF osmolarity increases, water
Leaves the cell
As ECF osmolarity decreases, water
Enters the cell
What is insensible water loss?
Water lost from the body via skin and lungs, perspiration, and feces
A rise in osmolarity stimulates
Decrease in osmolarity causes
Three abnormalities of water balance
Dehydration, hypotonic hydration (cell drown), edema (tissue swelling, water retention)
Another name for hypotonic hydration; treatment?
Hyponatremia; treated with hypertonic saline
a disorder where too little aldosterone is produced in the adrenal cortex
What is Pica?
A disorder where a person may eat substances such as chalk, clay, or starch. Pica is caused by a deficiency in minerals such as iron.
What is the most abundant cation in the extracellular fluid?
What happens to sodium that leaks into cells?
It is pumped out against the electrochemical gradient
(T/F) There are receptors in the body that monitor sodium levels in the body fluids?
False; no receptors are known, instead sodium is linked to blood pressure and blood volume control mechanisms.
What plays the biggest role in sodium regulation in the kidneys?
What percentage of sodium is reabsorbed in the proximal tubules? What percentage is reclaimed by the nephron loops?
65% by proximal tubules; 25% by nephron loops
ANP stands for
atrial natriuretic peptide
What are cardiovascular baroreceptors?
Baroreceptors that alert the brain to increases in blood volume and pressure
Decrease of potassium in ECF is called? What does it cause?
Hypokalemia; causes hyperpolarization and nonresponsivness
Increase of potassium in ECF is called? What does it cause?
Hyperkalemia; causes depolarization and reduced excitability
(T/F) disruptions in potassium levels do not interfere with electrical conduction and cannot result in sudden death
False; directly interfere
In ECF, postassium levels rise with
In ECF, potassium levels fall with
What stimulates potassium secretion?
Why have salt substitutes become popular? What are these substitutes high in?
The salt substitutes have become popular in those that are trying to lower their blood pressure levels. Salt substitutes are high in potassium levels, and are safe only when the body's release of aldosterone is normal.
99% of the body's calcium is found where?
The bones in the form of calcium phosphate salts
PTH stands for
PTH promotes an increase in calcium levels by targeting what 3 things?
The bones, kidneys, and the small intestine
Low calcium levels in the blood; can lead to muscle tetany
High calcium levels; can lead to heart arrhythmias
Major anion in ECF
Chloride, or Cl-
(T/F) 99% of Chloride is reabsorbed under a normal pH?
What is the normal pH of arterial blood?
What is the normal pH of venous blood and interstitial fluid?
Venous blood = pH 7.35; ICF = pH 7.0
pH of alkalosis or alkalemia
arterial pH > 7.45
pH of acidosis or acidemia
arterial pH <7.35
What are the three mechanisms in the body that regulate the acid-base balance?
Chemical buffer systems, Brain stem respiratory centers, and Renal mechanisms
Strong acids dissociate ______________ in water (all or some)
Weak acids dissociate ______________ in water (all or some)
Strong bases dissociate ___________ in water (hard or easy)
Weak bases accept hydrogen __________ (slow or fast)
A system of one or more compounds that acts to resist the pH changes when a strong acid or base is added
Three major chemical buffer systems (b,p,p)
bicarbonate, phosphate, and protein
(Ex.) Bicarbonate buffer system (with strong acid)
strong acid + weak base (yields) weak acid + salt
(T/F) The bicarbonate buffer system is the only important ECF buffer?
(Ex.) Bicarbonate buffer system (with strong base)
Strong base + weak acid (yields) weak base + water
Phosphate buffer system is effective where?
Effective in urine and ICF where phosphate concentrations are high
(Ex.) of Phosphate buffer system (with strong acid)
Strong acid + weak base (yields) weak acid + salt
(Ex.) of Phosphate buffer system (with strong base)
Strong base + weak acid (yields) weak base + water
(T/F) protein molecules are amphoteric, which means they can function as both weak acids and weak bases
(T/F) Hemoglobin functions as an intracellular buffer
(T/F) the lungs eliminate volatile carbonic acid by eliminating carbon dioxide
The __________ eliminate nonvolatile, or fixed acids produced by cellular metabolism.
Kidneys; when thinking of nonvolatile or fixed, think solid and then think about what would eliminate solid material from the body
(T/F) all acid-base imbalances are classed as either respiratory or metabolic
What is the single most important indicator in the concentration of blood?
Respiratory function; acidosis and alkalosis (the balance between) too much or too little carbon dioxide and/or oxygen
High levels of carbon dioxide in the blood is called (concentration above 45 mm Hg)
Low levels of carbon dioxide in the blood is called? can lead to what? (concentration below 35 mm Hg)
respiratory alkalosis; hyperventilation
What exactly is hyperventilation? How can it be reversed?
Hyperventilation is the elimination of carbon dioxide faster than it is able to be produced. To reverse or treat someone that is hyperventilating, the person should take slow, deep breaths in order for the body to catch up and regulate its system.
How much plasma is included in the body water content? Why is plasma needed?
3 Liters; it is the link between the internal and external environment.
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