Absolute Monarchs Vocabulary

Philip II, Louis XIV, and other monarchies
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absolute monarch
king ruling completely power not limited to having to consult with nobles,common people, or representative
divine right
monarchs received their power from God
Philip II
King of Spain, was married to Mary Tudor, tried to marry Queen Elizabeth declared spanish armada after Sir Francis Drake robbed spanish ships Spain reached power under his rule
James I
first absolute monarch commissioned a new english translation of the Bible took over throne after Elizabeth difficulty parliament over religion
Charles I
King that dismissed parliament and spent large amounts of money war with parliament caused English Civil War lost and was beheaded
James II
not popular offended people by being catholic overthrown in Glorious Revolution
Charles II
granted Habeas Corpus religiously tolerant invited by Parliament to rule
Oliver Cromwell
English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator. Round head
William (of Orange) and Mary
King and Queen of England from 1689 to 1702. They were placed on the throne as a result of the Glorious Revolution of 1688, and ruled as limited monarchs. James II fled because of them
Petition of Right
Document prepared by Parliament and signed by King Charles I of England in 1628; challenged the idea of the divine right of kings and declared that even the monarch was subject to the laws of the land limited kings power could not levy taxes without parliaments approval
English Bill of Rights
King William and Queen Mary accepted this document in 1689. It guaranteed certain rights to English citizens and declared that elections for Parliament would happen frequently. By accepting this document, they supported a limited monarchy, a system in which they shared their power with Parliament and the people.
Puritans
Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization. Calvinists
Glorious Revolution
A reference to the political events of 1688-1689, when James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange.
Roundheads
Puritan supporters of Parliment, fighting the English Civil War from 1642-1649
Cavaliers
supporters of Charles I
Louis XIV
king of France from 1643 to 1715; his long reign was marked by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles (1638-1715) sun king "I am the state"
Versailles
a palace built in the 17th century for Louis XIV southwest of Paris near the city of Versailles
Edict of Nantes
document that granted religious freedom to the Huguenots
Huguenots
French protestants
Maria Theresa
This was the queen of Austria as a result of the Pragmatic Sanction. She limited the papacy's political influence in Austria, strengthened her central bureaucracy and cautiously reduced the power that nobles had over their serfs involved in wars with Prussia
Hapsburgs
ruling family of Austria
Thirty Years War
(1618-48) A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a batlte between France and their rivals the Hapsburg's, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire.
Peace of Westphalia
the peace treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War in 1648
Fredrick the Great
Was ruler of Purussia. He centralized the government and put it under his control. He devoted his life to the Prussia army military leader great
Peter the Great
czar of Russia who introduced ideas from western Europe to reform the government
Catherine the Great
This was the empress of Russia who continued Peter's goal to Westernizing Russia, created a new law code, and greatly expanded Russia