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79 terms

Chemical Reactions/Compounds Study Guide

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Compound
substance made up of two or more elements chemically combined
Molecule
smallest part of a compound that has all the properties of the compound
Mixture
Two or more substances that have been combined, but not chemically changed.
Organic Compound
Compound containing carbon
Structural Formula
Molecular model of an organic compound
Amino Acids
compounds that are the building blocks of proteins
Carbohydrates
compounds that make sugars and starches
Lipids
compounds that make fats and oils needed to repair the body
Proteins
commpounds needed to build and repair that body
physical change
a change that alters the form or appearance of a substance but doesn't make the material into another substance
atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
atom
the smallest particle of an element
element
a substance that cannot be broken down into any other substances by chemical or physical means
molecule
a combo of 2 or more atoms that are bonded together
compound
a substnace made of 2 or more elements chemically combined
proton
small, positively charged particle in the nucleus of an atom
atomic mass
the average mass of one atom of an element
periodic table
an arrangement of the elements in order of atomic number, in which elements with similar properties are grouped in columns
families
elements in the same vertical column of the periodic table
electron
a tiny, negatively charged, high-energy particle that moves in the space outside the nucleus of an atom
neutron
small, uncharged particle in the nucleus of an atom
valence electrons
the electrons that are the farthest away from the nucleus of an atom and involved in chemical reactions
chemical reaction
a process in which substances undergo chemical changes
synthesis
a chemical reaction in which two or more simple substances combine to form a new, more complex substance
decomposition
a chemical reaction that breaks down a compound into simpler products
endothermic reaction
a reaction that absorbs energy in the form of heat
exothermic reaction
a reaction that releases energy in the form of heat
precipitate
a solid that forms from a solution during a chemical reaction
chemical equation
a short, easy way to show a chemical reaction, using symbols instead of words
reactant
a substnace that enters into a chemical reaction
product
a substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction
conservation of mass
the principle stating that matter is not created or destroyed during a chemical reaction
coefficient
the "big" number in a chemical formula that shows the number of molecules of a compound
synthesis
a chemical reaction in which two or more substances combine to form one larger substance
replacement reaction
a chemical reaction in which one element replaces another in a compound, or when two elements in different compounds trade places
Protons
positively charged particles located in the nucleus
Neutrons
Particles in nucleus with neutral charge
Electrons
negatively charged particles found outside the nucleus
Atoms
Tiny particles of matter containing protons, neutrons, and electrons
Substituent
Any atom or group of atoms that can take the place of a hydrogen atom on a parent hydrocarbon molecule
Covalent Bond
Chemical bonding in which electrons are shared rather than transferred
Alkene
Unsaturated hydrocarbon in which at least one pair of carbon atoms is joned by a double covalent bond
Substituent
Any part of the molecule that is not part of the parent chain
Isomer
Organic compounds that have the same molecular formula, but different structural formulas
Unsaturated hydrocarbon
One or more of the bonds between carbon atoms is a double covalent or triple covalent bond
Hydrocarbon
Organic compounds that only contain hydrogen and carbon
Saturated Hydrocarbon
Straight-chain or branched chain saturated hydrocarbon in which all bonds between carbon atoms are single covalent bonds
polymers
Long chains of unit molecules are called
organic compounds
most compounds that contain carbon
Chemical reactions
The process in which substances undergo chemical changes that results in the formation of new substances.
Compound
A substance made of two or more elements chemically combined in a specific ratio, or proportion.
Mixture
Two or more substances that are mixed together but not chemically combined.
Physical change
A change that alters the form or appearance of a material but does not make the material into another substance.
Chemical reaction
The process in which substances undergo chemical changes that results in the formation of new substances.
Precipitate
A solid that forms from a solution during a chemical reaction.
Atom
The smallest particle of an element.
Molecule
The combination of two or more atoms.
Chemical bond
The force that holds atoms together.
Chemical equation
A short, easy way to show chemical reactions, using symbols instead of words.
Symbol
A one or two letter set of characters that is used to identify elements.
Reactants
A substance that enters into a chemical reaction.
Products
A substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction.
Conservation of mass
The principle stating that matter is not created or destroyed during a chemical reaction.
Coefficient
A number in front of a chemical formula in an equation that indicates how many molecules or atoms of each reactant and product are involved in a reaction.
Synthesis
A chemical reaction in which two or more simple substances combine to form a new, more complex substance.
Decomposition
A chemical reaction that breaks down compounds into simpler products.
Replacement reaction
A reaction in which one element replaces another in a compound; or when two elements in different compounds trade places.
Exothermic reaction
A reaction that releases energy in the form of heat.
Endothermic reaction
A reaction that absorbs energy in the form of heat.
Activation energy
The minimum amount of energy that has to be added to get a chemical reaction started.
Catalyst
A material that increases the rate of a chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy.
Enzyme
A biological catalyst that lowers the activation energy of reactions in cells.
Inhibitor
A material that decreases the rate of a reaction.
Combustion
A rapid reaction between oxygen and fuel that results in fire.
Fuel
A material that releases energy when it burns.
alcohol
a substituted hydrocarbon with one or more hydroxyl groups
carboxyl group
a COOH group found in organic acids
cellulose
a complex carbohydrate found in plain matter
cholesterol
a waxy lipid in animal and human cells