Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
A&P Chapter 21,22,25 Homework Question
Terms in this set (116)
Most Memory B cells are found circulating in the lymph.
True or False
Most common allergies are the result of __________.
type I (acute) hypersensitivity
The __________ show(s) a remarkable degree of degeneration (involution) with age.
__________ participate in both innate immunity and the immune response.
Helper T (TH) cells
Bronchoconstriction, dyspnea, and widespread vasodilation are all characteristics of __________.
One characteristic of the immune response is specificity. This means that __________.
immunity is directed against a particular pathogen
Memory T cells can be up to __________ old.
Before B cells secrete antibodies, they differentiate into _________.
__________ are the largest of the lymphatic vessels, and they empty into the __________.
Collecting ducts; subclavian veins
Interferons are secreted in response to bacterial infections. True or False
A person who is HIV-positive and has a helper T (TH) cell count lower than __________ has AIDS.
Which of the following cannot act as antigen-presenting cells?
The serum used for emergency treatment of snakebites stimulates __________ immunity.
Which of these cellular agents does not participate in inflammation?
Cytotoxic T cells
__________ constitutes about 80% of circulating antibodies in plasma.
The __________ tonsils are the largest, and their surgical removal (tonsillectomy) used to be one of the most common surgical procedures performed in children.
Lymph is similar to blood plasma, but very low in __________.
__________ is not a cardinal sign characteristic of inflammation.
___________ employ a "respiratory burst" to produce bactericidal chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hypochlorite (HClO).
Interleukins are chemical signals by which immune cells communicate with each other. True or False
Cytotoxic T cells respond only to antigens bound to MHC-I proteins. True or False
__________ are secreted by cells infected with viruses, alerting neighboring cells and protecting them from becoming infected.
Cellular immunity uses B cells and humoral immunity uses antibodies. True or False
__________ lacks the capacity to remember a pathogen or react differently to it in the future, whereas __________ utilizes memory cells to adapt to a given pathogen and ward it off more easily in the future.
Innate immunity; adaptive immunity
The lymphatic system is involved in circulation, immunity, and nutrient absorption. True or False
Complement C3b protein coats bacteria and stimulates phagocytosis by __________ during a process called __________.
neutrophils and macrophages; opsonization
Pyrogens act by increasing the set point for body temperature in the thalamus. True or False
Naive T cells can synthesize antibodies. True or False
Red bone marrow is the point of origin of all immune cells of the lymphatic system. True or False
Which of the following is not an example of lymphatic tissue?
Cellular (cell-mediated) immunity is effective against __________.
Removal of the __________ would be more harmful to a one-year-old child than an adult.
Antigen-presenting cells usually display processed antigens to T cells in the _____________.
Antibodies and complement can work together, linking innate and adaptive immunity. True or False
The immune system spans nearly every organ and tissue in the human body. True or False
A pyrogen is a substance that causes __________.
Which is the correct sequence of events in the humoral immune response?
Antigen recognition → antigen presentation → clonal selection → differentiation → attack
T cells achieve immunocompetence in the __________.
The expansion of the lungs during inspiration generates a pressure gradient causing air to flow into the lungs. This is an example of Boyle's law. True or False
Mucus plays an important role in cleansing inhaled air. It is produced by __________ of the respiratory tract.
Which of the following is caused by the chemical reactions of gases of the respiratory system?
Regulation of pH
The respiratory system contains a total of five __________.
Deep, rapid breathing often seen in terminal diabetes mellitus is known as what?
Which law states that the total atmospheric pressure is a sum of the contributions of the individual gases?
If one inspires through their nose, which of the following answers has the correct order of structures the air would move through?
Nares → Vestibule → Nasal Cavity → Nasopharynx → Oropharynx → Laryngopharynx → Larynx → Trachea → Primary Bronchus → Secondary Bronchus → Tertiary Bronchus → Bronchiole → Terminal Bronchiole → Respiratory Bronchiole → Alveolar Duct → Alveolar Sac → Alveolus
Tom is in respiratory arrest due to an electrical shock. Why does a good samaritan have up to 4 or 5 minutes to begin CPR and save Tom's life?
There is a venous reserve of oxygen in Tom's blood.
Metabolically active tissues have which of the following sets of conditions that shift the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve to the right?
↓ PO2, ↑ PCO2, ↑ temperature, ↑ BPG
Among its other purposes, how is the Valsalva maneuver used?
To aid in defecation and urination
Hemoglobin releases the same amount of oxygen to all the tissues regardless of variations in their metabolic rate. True or False
Which of the following enzymes in an RBC breaks H2CO3 down to water and carbon dioxide?
Which of the following is the term for a deficiency of oxygen or the inability to utilize oxygen in a tissue?
The rate of oxygen diffusion is affected by the pressure gradient of carbon dioxide. True or False
Which of the following would slow down gas exchange between the blood and alveolar air?
An increase in membrane thickness
The nose is divided into right and left halves called the __________.
Which of the following cartilages is largest?
Which of the following is a lung disease marked by abnormally few but large alveoli?
What are the most numerous cells in the lungs?
The maximum amount of air the lungs can contain is known as inspiratory capacity. True or False
The pleurae and pleural fluid help prevent the spread of pulmonary infection to the pericardium. True or False
After the terminal bronchi air enters the alveoli next. True or False
Hypocapnia will lead to which of the following conditions?
Hypoventilation due to alkalosis
Nitrogen bubbles can form in the blood and other tissues when a scuba diver ascends too rapidly, producing a syndrome called _________.
The anatomical dead space is greatest in which of the following situations?
After swerving to narrowly avoid an accident while driving
Which of these is most likely to result from contact between contaminated fingers and the nasal mucosa?
Which of the following issues output to the VRG to adjust the respiratory rhythm?
In a healthy person, which of the following will have the greatest influence on resistance to pulmonary airflow?
Your breathing rate is 12 breaths/minute; your tidal volume is 500 mL; your vital capacity is 4700 mL; and your dead air space is 150 mL. Your alveolar ventilation rate is __________ mL/min.
Which malignancy originates in the lamina propria of the bronchi?
Which of the following has no effect on oxyhemoglobin dissociation?
Which of the following does not contain ciliated cells?
Each hemoglobin molecule can transport up to __________ oxygen molecules.
The pH of the cerebrospinal fluid is monitored by which of these brainstem centers?
Which of the following is a lung disease marked by a reduced number of cilia, reduced motility of the remaining cilia, goblet cell hypertrophy and hypersecretion, and thick sputum?
Which bronchus is about 5cm long and slightly narrower and more horizontal than the one on the opposite side?
Left main bronchus
The amount of air in excess of tidal volume that can be inhaled with maximum effort is the __________.
inspiratory reserve volume
According to the Bohr effect, a low level of oxyhemoglobin enables the blood to transport more CO2. True or False
The stomach contains enteric pacemaker cells responsible for its regular churning motion and thus mechanical digestion. True or False
The small intestine is suspended from the abdominal wall by the ___________.
Which of the following is not normally found in saliva?
Lecithin prepares fats for hydrolysis by forming __________.
The __________ regulates digestive tract motility, secretion, and blood flow. Its neurons are found in the __________.
enteric nervous system; submucosa and muscularis externa
The liver is the body's largest gland.True or False
The physiological process that moves a nutrient from the outside of the body to the inside is called __________.
Which of the following has an abundance of lymphoid tissue in the mucosa and submucosa?
A hepatic triad consists of __________.
a bile ductule, a branch of the hepatic artery, and a branch of the hepatic portal vein
The muscle tone of the __________ along the colon contracts it lengthwise, causing its walls to bulge and form pouches called __________.
taeniae coli; haustra
Carbohydrate digestion begins in the __________, whereas protein digestion begins in the __________.
Pepsinogen is produced by __________ and is activated by __________, which is secreted by __________.
chief cells; hydrochloric acid (HCl); parietal cells
Acid reflux into the esophagus ("heartburn") is normally prevented by __________.
the lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
Contact digestion takes place in/at the __________.
brush border of the small intestine
Most fat is digested by pancreatic lipase. True or False
Which of the following statements is true regarding the sodium-glucose transport protein (SGLT)?
It transports glucose and sodium from the intestinal lumen into the epithelial cells.
The enterogastric reflex serves to __________.
inhibit gastric motility when there is chyme in the small intestine
The layer that is responsible for the motility that propels food and residue through the digestive tract is called the __________.
Which of the following is not a function of gastric hydrochloric acid (HCl)?
Lipids are transported to the surface of the intestinal absorptive cells by __________, and are then processed into __________.
Which of the following statements regarding the migrating motor complex is true?
It milks the chyme toward the colon.
The enteric nervous system regulates much of the digestive activity, but its action depends on the central nervous system. True or False
Infants have __________ deciduous teeth, whereas adults have __________ permanent teeth.
Defecation is controlled by a __________.
myenteric reflex and a spinal reflex
The movement of colonic contents from one puckered section to another is called __________.
The small intestine uses segmentation to mix chyme with digestive enzymes, increase its contact with the mucosa, and propel it forward through the digestive tract. True or False
Bacteria constitute about __________% of the dry weight of the feces.
The small intestine begins with the duodenum, which is its longest segment. True or False
The large intestine absorbs water, fats, and salts. True or False
Enamel is found in the crown of a tooth, whereas dentin is part of both the crown and the root. True or False
Gastric juice consists entirely of water and hydrochloric acid. True or False
A sodium bicarbonate solution is secreted in response to a hormone called __________.
Which of the following is the accessory organ of digestion responsible for producing bile?
Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is secreted by __________ cells.
The swallowing center is located in the __________.
The __________ synthesizes bile acids by metabolizing __________.
The __________ phase is associated with food stretching the stomach and activating myenteric and vagovagal reflexes, which in turn stimulate gastric secretions.
Which of the following is not involved in chemical digestion?
Which of the following nutrients is absorbed by the lacteals of the small intestine?
Which of the following nutrients must be digested in order to be absorbed?
Sets with similar terms
Anatomy Exam 2 Review
Immune, Gastric, and Lungs
AP II Mastering Quiz Questions
Other sets by this creator
Microbiology test 3
Microbiology Chapter 5-9
Quiz Practice Questions