No, they learn more when they are praised for effort.
Is there research supporting learning styles?
No, while 80% of public believe this, it is not validated by research.
Are lecture based approaches effective?
No, students in lectures are 50% more likely to fail than students that practice.
How effective is testing yourself?
Can increase outcomes by 50%
Its impossible to learn if we dont want to learn.
Focus is key in the early part of mastery. We need to figure out what we want to learn and set goals and targets.
Some forms of practice work better than others.
Flesh out skills and knwoledge and create more meaningful forms of understanding.
This is the phase where we see how it all fits together.
What are the five steps of learning?
Value Target Develop Extend Relate
Why is rethinking important?
When it comes to learning, it's easy to be overconfident. Need to review knowledge, reconsider our understanding, and learn from our learning.
Learning is a generative activity - Mayer
We gain expertise by actively producing what we know.
What does learning for meaning require?
Mindfulness or an active sense of value. Engaging in a way that highlights the newness of the experience. Actively hunting for what original and novel in an area.
What is an exploratory mindset
Focus on the material you are curious about and has value to you rather than a grade or paycheck.
What is the Measures of Effective Teaching study
A 2 year program on what helps people learn sponsored by US Department of Eduction, that Boser argues is ignored by most teachers.
Who wrote, "How the body knows the mind?"
What did Carl Wieman say about teachers?
They need to be more like athletic coaches that help students break down the key elements of thinking required and then practice the thinking.
What did Bror Saxberg, the chief learning officer at Kaplan do to improve learning?
Presented complex ideas in a more focused and networked fashion with fixed examples that walked students through the skill set teaching students in 9 minutes rather than 90-minute video lectures.
Where is Bror Saxberg now?
Chan Zuckerberg Initiative
What are the two parts of meta-cognition?
1) Planning (How will I know what I know? What are my goals? Do I need more background knowledge?) 2) Monitoring (Could I learn this differently? Am I making progress? Why am I doing what I am doing?)
What did Marcel Veenman say about IQ versus metacognition?
Metacognition accounts for 40% of learning outcomes. IQ accounts for 25%
Why did Dartmouth College professor assign books and articles that were wrong?
So they could get better at reasoning through what the book got right and wrong
What did Toronto brain surgeon Mark Bernstein discover about recording errors?
By creating feedback his team made far fewer gaffes.
What book did John Hattie write?
What did Hattie discover about retrieval practice?
A group that read a passage once, and practiced recalling it 3 times learned more than another group that read the passage 4 times.
What's the hardest part in a learning process
Understanding underlying connections, which also leads to mastery
How do you build mastery?
By mixing up practice by interweaving different examples
What did psychologist Nate Kornell tell Boser?
"The ultimate crime is practicing the same thing multiple times in a row. Practice for a long chunk of time, but dont repeat anything."
How might mixing things up apply to improving skiing
Mix things up immediately by going on a powdery slope one moment and an icy one the next run.
Who wrote "How to Solve it?"
What did George Pólya say about learning thinking skills within a topic
1) Understand the problem 2) Devise a plan - find the connection between data and unknown 3) Carry out the plan - a matter of doing and vetting 4) Looking back- by reexamining the result and the path people can consolidate knowledge and develop their ability to solve problems