American History Unit 2 Industrial Revolution (1870-1900)
Unit 2: THE GILDED AGE
Terms in this set (44)
How did inventions promote change in American industry?
In 1860, after Civil War, the US was still mostly agricultural (farming). But by 1920, the US had become a leading industrial power. This was due to 3 things: natural resources (oil, coal, iron), government supported businesses and their growth, and a growing urban (city) population that had cheap labor and new markets to sell the goods to.
"Black Gold" = Oil
Oil was useful to refine it down to kerosene for lamps, giving people light beyond candles. Second, oil was refined into kerosene and gasoline was a byproduct, which after the automobile was invented in 1906 (?), and became most important use and form of oil.
A manufacturing process. It takes iron and removes the carbon, thus making steel. Steel is lighter, more flexible and rust-resistant, way better than iron (heavy, rigid, rusts). In 1890, Bessemer manufacturing process was used to make 90% of US steel. Huge industry as steel was used to make railroad tracks, bridges (Brooklyn Bridge), farming machines, first skyscraper building
Thomas Alva Edison
Invented "incandescent" light bulb and system to produce and distribute electricity. Inventions in 1880, but 1890, electric power/electricity ran machines in factories. Cheap power meant factories could locate anywhere, not just near a river (for water power). Also, began invention and use of household appliances that used electricity (sewing machine)
Alexander Grahm Bell
Invented telephone. In 1876, opened way for worldwide communication via telephone. Huge change.
In a factory, an arrangement where a product is moved from worker to worker, and each worker performs the same task over and over as the product is mass produced.
With the invention of machines, factories and assembly lines, products could be produced quicker and cheaper, thus making more of them to sell.
Railroad Age begins in 1850's and cities along the RR lines grow a ton, like Chicago, companies can transport their goods all over the country to sell to more markets, and the railroads themselves became profitable companies.
Urban population growth
As more people lived and worked in the cities they became a growing market to purchase all the clothes, ride the railroads, work in offices with light bulbs.
Philosophy adapted from Charles Darwin's theory of Natural Selection where the animals that survive are the ones best adapted to their environment. Social Darwinism was used to explain the "evolution of society". The idea that success or failure in business is due to a Natural Law of selection and people most adapted to the situation (hard workers, smart, innovative) would thrive, and those least adapted (lazy) would fail. Similarly, that getting rich was a sign that God thought well of you, but the poor must be lazy or inferior people. Thus, people believed that these business owners did not need to be "regulated" (controlled) by the government because success was just the Natural Law of things.
French term meaning laid back, or "allowed to do" (not aggressive)
complete control over an industry. Carnegie merged with others in Steel and created a monopoly. Rockefeller created a Trust that bought out the stock of competing companies, so he also created an Oil Monopoly.
Became wealthy for work in railroad (1st) and steel (2nd). Worked for Pennsylvania Railroad, at 18 did so well that was allowed to buy stock. Born penniless, worked his way up. Entered Steel business (after leaving railroad) and began Carnegie Steel Company. By 1900, it made/manufactured more steel than all factories combined in Great Britain. He is known for two key/new business practices: Always searched for better products more cheaply and attracted talented workers because he offered them stock in his company (so they would work hard and make more money for him and themselves). Then, supported charities. "Rags to riches" story of hard work, making a fortune, then gave away 90% of his money to charity.
Carnegie also learned to control the steel industry by buying out his suppliers, in order to control the raw materials and transportation. Bought out the supply chain, up and down.
Bought out competitors. Carnegie's other business strategy - he bought out or merged with similar companies, thus limiting his competition.
When a company buys out or merges with a competitor to limit its competition.
John D. Rockefeller
Owned the Standard Oil Company, made a fortune, but used a different business strategy than mergers. He created Trusts where competing companies joined their stocks and a group of Trustees ran the separate companies as one large corporation. Thus, John D. Rockefeller used a Trust to gain total control of the Oil industry in America. Also, Rockefeller was known for paying employees low wages, selling his oil for a low price, thus driving out the competition, THEN he when he controlled the market, he hiked the price way up.
Getting competing companies to join their stocks into one Trust that becomes a large corporation. Everyone makes some money, but the Trust owners gain control of the whole industry (eliminating the competition).
A term referring to Rockefeller's business tactics of paying low wages, cutting his prices low, eliminating the competition, then hiking his own price much higher when he has a monopoly.
Industrialist and Philanthropist
Both Carnegie and Rockefeller made huge fortunes AND also gave away hundreds of millions (in early 1900's) to charities, to build colleges, medical school, places for the Arts.
President Lincoln said he would give people land to farm on and if they farmed successfully for 5 years, they could keep the land without having to pay for it.
When Americans purchased items, it was going to cost more outside of the US because of the taxation of imported goods. It guarantees that locally produced goods will sell at a lower price than imported goods which gives the home-grown produce or home-manufactured items, a distinct advantage in the market place. It's done by putting a tax (tariff) on imports, to ensure that they are not priced the same as or lower than the domestic market goods.
What were the characteristics of the immigrant experience during the Industrial Revolution?
Immigrant experience was difficult. People left their countries for the "Gold Mountain", as Chinese saw the US and its opportunities for making money, enjoying a better life. However, they were not prepared for prejudice, mistreatment as second class citizens. Not only was the voyage across the Atlantic or Pacific ocean long and crowded and difficult, when they arrived, it was a very difficult life here. They usually lived in an ethnic community ("China Town") where other immigrants spoke their native language, they pooled their money to build churches, etc.
An organized, often officially encouraged massacre or persecution of a minority group, especially one conducted against Jews.
Many American thought of their country as a "melting pot", a mixture of people from different cultures and races. As immigration increased, strong anti-immigrant feelings/racism emerged.
An inspection station in New York where immigrants from Europe, China and other countries got inspected to decide whether they could be allowed in the US. If they had a disease like Tuberculosis, they got sent back to China or Europe!
An inspection station on the West coast, mostly for Chinese people arriving in San Francisco. From 1910-1940, 50,000 Chinese people entered through Angel Island. Worse for immigrants than Ellis Island. Immigrants harsh questioning, long hours or days in filthy, rundown buildings.
Statue of Liberty
Statue in New York City, the 1886 dedication ceremony occurred during the largest wave of immigrants the US has ever known. Inscription on the base of the Statue of Liberty= "Give us your tired, your poor, your huddled masses..."
Favoring an American who was a native-born American over an immigrant. However, nativists did not object to western Europeans who were more like them and their own religion, and considered from the "right" countries. If you were from an Asian, Latin/Hispanic or Slavic country, you were from the "wrong" country.
Chinese Exclusion Act
Congress banned Chinese immigrants from entering the country for ten years, and then extended it for another ten years, 1882-1902, extended again until 1943.
Assimilating (bringing together) people of different cultures into the main/dominant American culture.
Growth of cities (people left farmlands and moved into cities)
like China Town in San Francisco, communities of immigrants within the US who liked to live near each other, who spoke same language, often started their own newspaper.
Multi-family, crowded, urban/city dwellings where immigrants lived, often rundown. These were old houses or apartments that previously housed one family, but then houses 2 or 3 immigrant families. One of the "urban problems" (poor housing, unsafe water, poor sanitation, crime, fires). Also, famous NBA players were raised in Tenement housing.
The result of the Great Potato Famine in Ireland in 1845 (when 25% of population either died or migrated to America) was that those of left Ireland immigrated to the US.
The Gilded Age
Name of book by Mark Twain about the greed and self-indulgence of people from 1870-1890 in the Industrial Revolution. It was a novel (satire in which characters find out trying to get rich quick is very hard and that behind the glitter are investments that turn out to be worthless, etc.)l but now the title represents the focus on money and things during the late 19th century. Shaped like a pyramid with city boss on top.
An organized group of people that controlled the political party in a city. Not an actual machine, but a group of powerful people that offered services to voters and businesses in exchange for financial support or political support.
Illegal use of political influence for personal gain. Such as a worker billing the City a higher amount, then taking the extra and giving it back to the political group/machine.
He controlled access to city jobs, getting a business license, influenced the courts, used power to build parks, schools, hospitals. Downside- became corrupted, accepted bribes to allow illegal gambling.
in 1869-1871, he was head of Tammany Hall (a NY political machine) and the Tweed Ring where he committed fraud (graft). In building a NY courthouse, the taxpayers paid 13 million but the actual cost was 3 million. He and his machine pocketed 10 million dollars.
name of a New York City political machine (Democratic). 1868
Giving of a government job to someone who helped your campaign, whether they are qualified or not.
President in 1881, shot and killed by someone he had turned down for a job. Wanted to stop corruption and urged passage of Pendelton Civil Service Act.
Pendleton Civil Service Act
in 1883 law that passed putting a commission in charge of who gets which government job based on a system of candidates performance on a test. (To see who is most qualified for the job)