Chemistry Packet #1

Review of Packet #1 notes.
STUDY
PLAY
What is Matter?
A substance or a mixture of substances.
What is an Element?
1. A substance that cannot be broken down or decomposed by a chemical change.
2. A substance whose atoms all have THE SAME ATOMIC NUMBER.
Where are all the Elements found?
Table S.
How many capital letters do their symbols have?
ONLY 1 capital letter.
Which of the following substances CANNOT be decomposed by chemical change?
(1) sulfuric acid
(2) ammonia
(3) water
(4) argon
(4) Argon.
Which substance CANNOT be decomposed by a chemical change?
(1) mercury (II) oxide
(2) potassium chlorate
(3) water
(4) copper
(4) copper
A substance that is composed only of atoms having the same atomic number is classified as
(1) a compound
(2) an element
(3) a homogeneous mixture
(4) a heterogeneous mixture
(2) an element
What are Diatomic Elements?
Elements whose molecules consist of 2 atoms in nature.
What are the 7 Diatomic Elements?
I₂, Br₂, Cl₂. F₂, O₂, N₂, H₂
( I Brought Claire From Our New House)
What are Monatomic Elements?
Elements whose molecules consist of 1 atom in nature.

Everything on the Periodic Table except the 7 Diatomic Elements.
What are Compounds?
A substance than can be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical means including electrolysis.
What are Compounds? (cont.)
A substance made up of 2 OR MORE elements chemically combined in a fixed ratio.
What are Compounds? (cont.)
ALL chemical formulas of compounds have at least 2 capital letters & are NOT found on Table S.
All compounds are..
Homogeneous.
Which substance can be decomposed by a chemical change?
(1) ammonia
(2) aluminum
(3) magnesium
(4) manganese
(1) ammonia
Which substances CAN be decomposed chemically?
(1) CaO and Ca
(2) MgO and Mg
(3) CO and Co
(4) CaO and MgO
(4) CaO and MgO
*Look for compounds, 2 cap letters.*
A COMPOUND differs from a MIXTURE in that a compound always has a..
Homogeneous composition.
Which substance CAN be decomposed by chemical means?
(1) aluminum
(2) octane
(3) silicon
(4) xenon
(2) octane.
Which substance CAN be broken down by chemical means?
(1) magnesium
(2) manganese
(3) mercury
(4) methanol
(4) methanol
Tetrachloromethane, CCI₄, is classified as a..
Compound because the atoms of the elements are combined in a fixed proportion.
Which list of formulas represents COMPOUNDS ONLY?
(1) CO₂, H₂O, NH₃
(2) H₂, N₂, O₂
(3) H₂, Ne, NaCI
(4) MgO, NaCI, O₂
(1) CO₂, H₂O, NH₃
Which type of matter is composed of TWO or more elements that are chemically combined in a fixed proportion?
(1) solution
(2) compound
(3) homogeneous mixture
(4) heterogeneous mixture
(2) compound.
Which substance CAN be broken down by chemical change?
(1) CO
(2) Ce
(3) Ca
(4) Cu
(1) CO
Every water molecule has TWO hydrogen atoms bonded to ONE oxygen atom. This fact supports the concept that elements in a compound are..
(1) Chemically combined in a fixed proportion.
What are Binary Compounds?
A compound consisting of 2 elements (2 capital letters).
What are the Common Binary Compounds?
NaCI = salt
H₂O = water
NH₃ = ammonia
CH₄ = methane
SiO₂ = sand
Which formula represents a Binary Compound?
(1) NH₄NO₃
(2) CH₄
(3) CH₃COCH₃
(4) CaCO₃
(2) CH₄
Which is a binary compound?
(1) sodium chlorate
(2) silver nitrate
(3) potassium chloride
(4) ammomium sulfide
(3) potassium chloride
An example of a binary compound is
(1) mercury
(2) ethanol
(3) sodium
(4) ammonia
(4) ammonia
What are Ternary Compounds?
A compound consisting of 3 elements (3 capital letters).
A mixture can be separated by..
Physical means.
Mixtures can be _______ or _______
Homogeneous or Heterogeneous.
Mixture are always in a _______ ratio. The atoms of the elements combine in a ratio that _____.
-A varying ratio.
-A ratio that varies.
A mixture is NOT a..
Pure substance.
A HOMOgenenous mixture is anything that dissolves in..
Water.
Anything that dissolves in water is a..
Homogeneous mixture.
**Look for (aq) = acqueous**
Homo Mixtures: The composition is the ______ throughout and all of the particles are ______ distributed.
-SAME
-EVENLY distributed.
Another word for a homogeneous mixture is a..
Solution.
Examples of Homo Mixtures:
Kool-Aid,Salt Water, Sugar Water, Iced Tea, etc.
Hetero Mixtures: The composition is ____________ throughout from top to bottom, and the particles are ____ distributed.
-NOT the same.
-UNEVENLY distributed.
Examples of HETERO mixtures:
Sand & salt, oil & water, pizza, Italian dressing, rocky road icecream, etc.
One similarity between a COMPOUND & a MIXTURE:
They both consist of 2 OR MORE substances.
4 Differences between a COMPOUND & a MIXTURE:
...
BROKEN DOWN-- HOW?
Compounds are broken down _________.
Mixtures are broken down ___________.
-Chemically.
Physically.
HOMO, OR HETERO?
Compounds are ____,
Mixtures can be ____ or ____.
Compounds are HOMO.
Mixtures can be HOMO or HETERO.
FIXED OR VARIED?
In a compound, the elements combine in a ____ ratio.
In a mixture, they combine in a _____ ratio.
-Fixed ratio.
-Varying ratio/ratio that varies.
PURE, OR NOT?
Compounds are a ___ substance.
Mixtures are NOT.
-pure.
Which statement is an identifying characteristic of a mixture?
(1) A mixture can consist of a single element.
(2) A mixture can be separated by physical means.
(3) A mixture must have a definite composition.
(4) A mixture must be homo.
(2) A mixture can be separated by physical means.
Which pair are classified as chemical substances?
(1) mixtures and solutions
(2) compounds and solutions
(3) elements and mixtures
(4) compounds and elements
(4) compounds and elements
Which represents a homogeneous mixture?
(1) CuSO₄(s)
(2) Br₂(l)
(3) NaCI(aq)
(4) CO₂(g)
(3) NaCI(aq)
Which formula represents a mixture?
(1) C₆H₁₂O₆(l)
(2) C₆H₁₂O₆(s)
(3) LiCI(aq)
(4) LiCI(s)
(3) LiCI(aq)
SEPARATING MIXTURES.
...
Liquids that mix with each other are..
Miscible.
EX: Water & Alcohol.
Liquids that do NOT mix with each other are..
Immiscible.
EX: Oil & Water.
METHODS OF SEPARATING A MIXTURE.
...
Flitration..
Separating a solid from a liquid, using filter paper.
Filtration separates different parts of a mixture by their _______________.
Solubilities & molecular polarities.
Flitration is only used to separate __________________ mixtures.
HETEROGENEOUS.
Anything that is insoluble in water will ____ on the filter paper & ______ pass through it.
-COLLECT.
-WILL NOT PASS.
Any particles that are dissolved in solution, will _____ through any filter.
PASS.
NaCI(aq) and SiO₂(s) can be separated using a..
Funnel and filter paper.
Evaporation
Method of separating dissolved particles (such as salt) from water.
Distillation
Method of separating 2 OR MORE MISCIBLE liquids with different boiling pts./mole. polarities.
Petroleum can be separated by distillation because the hydrocarbons in petroleum are..
Compounds, with different boiling pts.
A beaker contains BOTH alcohol & water. These liquids can be separated by distillation b/c the liquids have different..
Boiling points.
Chromatography
All homo mixtures to separate depending of the diff. parts of the mixture having diff. attractions to the paper due to their diff. solubilities & mole. polarities.
Separatory Funnel
Used to separate immiscible liquids.
EX: Oil & Water.
Pure Substances
Any element/comp in the solid, liquid, or gas state.
EX: H₂O(l), O₂(g), NACI(s)
Mixtures (aq) are ________ substances.
Are NOT pure.
Physical Properties
Any property that DOES NOT change the chemical nature of matter.

EX: Density, color, boil/melt/freeze pt, odor, taste, solubility, ability to dissolve in water, electrical conductivity.
Chemical Properties
Any property that gives a a substance the ability to undergo a change that results in a NEW substance.

EX: Ability to REACT with an acid, base. Combustible/Flammable, ability to decompose.
PHYS OR CHEM?
...
The boiling point of lithium is 1615 K
PHYSICAL
Iron combines with oxygen to form rust
CHEMICAL
Potassium REACTS with iodine to produce po6tassium iodide
CHEMICAL
The density of calcium is 1.54g/cm³
PHYSICAL
Helium gas compresses
PHYSICAL
Selenium melts at a temp of 494 K
PHYSICAL
Sodium conducts electricity & heat
PHYSICAL
Zinc reacts w/ acid to produce hydrogen gas
CHEMICAL
Tin can be flattened into sheets
PHYSICAL
Salt dissolves in water to form
PHYSICAL
Magnesium burns in air
CHEMICAL
Physical CHANGES
The chemical composition of a substance is NOT changed.
Physical CHANGES
**If you see the SAME substance on BOTH SIDES of the arrow in a chem equation, it's a physical change.
WITH THE EXCEPTION OF SALT DISSOLVING IN WATER.
EX: H₂O(s)+heat = H₂O(l)
CO₂(s)+heat = CO₂(g)
Physical CHANGES Examples
Ice melting, ice subliming (s--g), chopping wood, ripping paper, boiling water.
Chemical CHANGES
The chemical composition of the substance is changed.
If you see DIFFERENT substances on each side of the arrow in a chem equation, it's a chem change. WITH THE EXCEPTION OF SALT DISSOLVING IN WATER.
PHYS VS CHEM CHANGE.
...
Alcohol evaporates.
Crystallization of sugar.
Melting of Ice.
Evaporation of Water.
Water Vapor forms snowflakes.
Large crystals are crushed into a powder.
ALL PHYSICAL CHANGES.
Souring of Milk.
Glucose & oxygen produce carbon dioxide & water.
Decomposing of hydrogen iodide.
A metal is added to water & rapid bubbling occurs.
Corrosion of copper.
ALL CHEMICAL CHANGES.
Which statement describes a CHEMICAL property of bromine?
Bromine combines with aluminum to produce AlBr₃.
Which is a chemical property of water?
(1) It freezes.
(2) It decomposes.
(3) It evaporates.
(4) It boils.
(2) It decomposes
Another word for Temperature..
Average Kinetic Energy.
Temperature is..
The avg kinetic energy of the molecules of particles of a substance.
Celsius Scale ---> Melting/freezing pt = ?
0°C.
Boiling pt = ?
100°C.
Kelvin Scale (AKA Absolute Scale)
Melting/Freezing pt = ?
273 K.
Kelvin- Boiling pt = ?
373 K.
A change in temp on the Celsius scale is always equal to..
A change in temp on the Kelvin scale.
If temp rises by 5°C, it also..
Rises by 5K.
If temp drops by 10°C,
It ALSO DROPS by 10K.
Formula is K= °C + 273
Also found on Reference Table T.
Convert from CELSIUS TO KELVIN, you..
Add 273.
Convert from KELVIN TO CELSIUS, you..
Subtract 273.
Convert to KELVIN. ADD 273.
-73°C = 200K
-5°C = 268 K
47°C = 320 K
Convert to CELSIUS. SUBTRACT 273.
473 K = 200°C
-17 K = -290°C
89 K = -184°C
Which Celsius temperature is equal to 298 K?
571°C. (SUBTRACT 273)
Which kelvin temperature is equal to 56°C?
329 K. (ADD 273)
Celsius = 273 = Kelvin
...
Kelvin - 273 = Celsius
...
What Celsius temperature is equal to 418 K?
145°C
A temp of 37°C is equivalent to a temp of..
310 K
AVERAGE KINETIC ENERGY
...
The average kinetic energy of the molecules of a substance is directly proportional to its __________________.
ABSOLUTE TEMP on the Kelvin scale.
As temp. increases,..
(decreases)
Average kinetic energy increases.
(decreases)
At which temp would the molecules in a one gram sample of water have the LOWEST average kinetic energy?
(1) 5°C
(2) -100°C
(3) 5 K
(4) 100K
(3) 5 K
The avg kinetic energy of water molecules is greatest in which of these samples?
(1) 10g of water at 35°C
(2) 10g of water at 55°C
(3) 100g of water at 25°C
(4) 100g of water at 45°C
(2) 10g of water at 55°C
**Find the highest Celsius temp)
In which sample of water do the molecules have the highest avg kinetic energy?
(1) 20. mL at 100°C
(2) 40. mL at 80.°C
(3) 60. mL at 60°C
(4) 80. mL at 40.°C
(1) 20. mL at 100°C
ENDOTHERMIC.
-Energy is ____________.
-Temp _____________.
-Heat, energy, or KJ is on the ____ side of the arrow in a chem reaction.
-Phase Change ____________.
-Potential energy ___________.
Energy is ABSORBED.
Temperature DECREASES.
Heat, energy, or KJ is on the LEFT side of the arrow in a chem reaction.
Phase change: S--L--G
POTENTIAL ENERGY INCREASES.
EXOTHERMIC
-Energy is _____________.
-Temp _____________.
-Heat, energy, or KJ is on the ____ side of the arrow in a chem reaction.
-Phase change _____________.
-Potential energy ____________.
ENERGY IS RELEASED.
TEMP INCREASES.
Heat, energy, or KJ is on the RIGHT side of the arrow in a chem reaction.
Phase change: G--L--S
POTENTIAL ENERGY DECREASES.
Examples of Endo changes.
Melting, Vaporization, Evaporation, Sublimation.
Examples of Exo changes.
Condensation, freezing/crystallization, deposition.
Which phase change is exothermic?
(1) H₂O(s) -- H₂O(l)
(2) H₂O(l) -- H₂O(s)
(3) H₂O(s) -- H₂O(g)
(4) H₂O(l) -- H₂O(g)
(2) H₂O(l) -- H₂O(s)
Which phase change is endothermic?
(1) H₂O(g) -- H₂O(l)
(2) H₂O(g) -- H₂O(s)
(3) H₂O(l) -- H₂O(s)
(4) H₂O(l) -- H₂O(g)
(4) H₂O(l) -- H₂O(g)
When a substance was dissolved in water, the temp of the water increased. This process is described as..
Exothermic, withe the release of energy.
HOW DOES HEAT FLOW?
Heat flows from HOT to COLD.
LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
Amt of energy lost = Amt of energy gained.
Warmer- loses energy
Colder- gains energy
What occurs when a 35-gram aluminum cube at 200°C is placed in 90. grams of water at 25°C in an insulated cup?
Heat is transferred from the aluminum to the water, and the temp of the water increases.
An iron bar at 325 K is placed in a sample of water. The iron bar GAINS ENERGY from the water if the temp of the water is
(1) 65 K
(2) 45 K
(3) 65°C
(4) 45°C
(3) 65°C
**65 + 273 = 338 K, which is hotter than 325 K.**
Object A at 40°C & object B at 80°C are placed in contact with each other. Which statement described the heat flow between the objects?
Heat objects from object B to object A.
What is Vapor Pressure?
The pressure given off by a vapor in equilibrium with a solid/liquid at a given temp.
As temp/avg kin energy increases..
Vapor pressure increases.
Why does the vapor pressure of a liquid increase when its temp increases?
As temp increases, more molecules have enough energy to escape the liquid phase.
When the vapor pressure of a liquid is = to the atmospheric pressure, the liquid will..
BOIL.
The STRONGER the IMF of a substance is, the
HIGHER the boiling pt.
The WEAKER the IMF of a substance is, the
LOWER the boiling pt.
As the atms. pressure ↑(↓), the temp at which the water will boil in an open container increases(decreases).
...
The HIGHER the vapor pressure of a liquid, the
WEAKER the IMF.
The LOWER the vapor pressure of a liquid, the
STRONGER the IMF.
Which substance has the lowest vap. pres. at 75°C?
Ethanoic Acid.
What is the vap. pres. of propanone at 45°C?
70 kPa
As the temp of a liquid ↑, its vap. pres. ↑
...
SIG FIGS
...
Atlantic Rule
When the decimal pt. is ABSENT, start from the RIGHT side of the number.
The first NONZERO digit & every digit to the left of it is significant.
Pacific Rule
When the decimal pt. is PRESENT, you start from the LEFT side of the number.
The first NONZERO digit & every digit the the right of it is significant.
How many sig figs?
...
40 = 1
0.4 = 1
4004 = 4
0.004 = 1
404 = 3
0.000025 = 2
0.28 = 2
20.06 = 4
...
Adding & Subtracting Sig Figs
When adding/subtracting sig figs, first line up the decimal points. Solve the problem, then cross out any columns to the RIGHT of the decimal point that have an empty space in it. Round.
162.1g + 38.73g + 1.554g = 202.4
44.7 kg - 7.2 s = 2.7
Mult. & Dividing Sig Figs
For mult. & div. sig figs, first find the # of sig figs in EACH # being multiplied or divided. Solve the problem. The answer to the problem MUST have the SAME 3 OF SIG FIGS AS THE 3 WITH THE LEAST AMT OF SIG FIGS.
Mult. & Dividing Sig Figs Examples
23.6(3 sig figs) x 6.2(2 sig figs) = 146.32 → 150
198.6 ÷ 22.4 = 8.86607 → 8.87
HEAT ENERGY
...
I kiloJoule = 1,000 Joule
1 kJ = 1,000J
KJ TO J = 3 PLACES TO RIGHT.
J TO KJ = 3 PLACES TO LEFT.
8863 J = 8.863 kJ
1.23 kJ = 1,230 J
8 J = 0.008 kJ
...
Which quantity of heat is = to 200 joules?
0.200 kJ
HEART FORMULAS.
...
Q = mc∆T
Q= heat
m= mass
c(Table B) = specific heat capacity
∆T= change in temp.
**When reading a heat problem, & you notice a CHANGE IN TEMP, then you KNOW to use Q= mc∆T.
How much heat is required to raise the temp of a 26-gram sample of water by 35°C?
Q=mc∆T → Q= (26)(4.18)(35) → 3.803 Joules
How much heat is necessary to change the temp of 17-grams of water from 10°C to 25°C?
Q=mc∆T → Q= (17)(4.18)(15)
→ Q= 1065.9 Joules
SOLVING FOR MASS. (Q=Mc∆T)
If 8300 Joules of heat raises the temp of a sample of water by 36°C, what is the MASS of the water?
8300 =M(4.18)(36)
8300/ 150.48
→ M = 55.2g
SOLVING FOR INITIAL TEMP.
When solving for initial temp., first solve for ∆T, then SUBTRACT ∆T from the temp given in the problem.
...
SOLVING FOR FINAL TEMP.
When solving for final temp., first solve for ∆T, then ADD ∆T to the temp given in the problem.
...
HEAT OF FUSION (Q= mHf)
-The amount of heat required to change one gram of a substance from a SOLID TO A LIQUID.
-The heat of fusion for water is 334J/g.
HEAT OF FUSION PROBLEMS
**When you see 0°C & NO OTHER TEMP, or the word melts, freezes, melting/freezing pt, solid to liquid or liquid to solid.**
-How much heat is required to MELT 66 grams of ice at 0°C?
HEAT OF VAPORIZATION (Q = Mhv)
Amount of heat required to change one gram of a substance from a LIQUID TO A GAS.
The heat of vaporization of water is 2260 J//g.
HEAT OF VAPORIZATION PROBLEMS
**When you see 100°C & NO OTHER TEMP, or the terms
-Vaporize, condense, boiling pt, liquid to gas, or gas to liquid.** USE Q = Mhv
-How much heat is required to vaporize 39 grams of water at its BOILING POINT?
**There is more heat required to vaporize the sample in heat of vaporization than in heat of fusion.
...
SOLIDS
-Definite shape & volume.
-Particles are arranged in a regular/definite geometric pattern.
-The particles are tightly packed closely together.
-Particles are constantly vibrating b/c they're so tightly packed.
-Solid state has strongest IMF.
LIQUIDS
Indefinite shape, but DEFINITE VOLUME.
-Takes the shape of the container.
-Liquids have STRONGER IMF than gases, but WEAKER IMF that solids.
GASES
-Indefinite shape AND indefinite volume.
-Takes the shape & COMPLETELY FILLS THE CONTAINER.
-Gas state has the weakest IMF.
(TABLE S)
If the temp of a element is BELOW the melting point of that element, it's in the SOLID STATE.
(TABLE S)
If the temp of an element is between the melting pt & boiling pt of that element, it's in the LIQUID STATE.
(TABLE S)
If the temp of an element is ABOVE the boiling pt. of that element, it's in the gas state.
(TABLE S) (C°? Add 273.)
Copper at 2012 K = Liquid
Germanium at 980°C = Liquid
Hydrogen at 24 K = Gas
Gold at 925°C(add 273) = solid
Draw 6 molecules of chlorine as they would appear at -53°C in the box below?
Chlorine is diatomic. -53 +273 = 220 K
...
SUBLIMATION
Endothermic.
SOLID→GAS
The three main substances that sublime are:
-H₂0(s), CO₂(s), & I₂(s)
SUBLIMATION
-For a substance to sublime, it must have HIGH VAPOR PRESSURE, & WEAK IMF of attraction.
DEPOSITION
Gas→Solid (EXOTHERMIC)
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