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Skull, Neck and Vertebral
Terms in this set (56)
Contains 22 bones which are divided into two sets. Most of the bones in the ______ are flat bones. The main joint found in the ______ is a suture, which is an immovable joint. The only movable joint in the ______ is the temporomandibular joint - where the jaw meets the ______
Comprised of 8 bones. Provides attachment sites for the muscles of the head and protect and enclose the brain and the organs of hearing and equilibrium.
Comprised of 14 bones. Makes up the frame work for the facial muscles and enclose the organs of sight, taste and smell.
Parietal Bones (paired)
Cranial bones. Curved, rectangular bones that form the majority of the superior and lateral aspects of the cranium.
Temporal bones (paired)
Cranial bones. Bones with a complicated shape that are inferior to the parietal bones. They form the inferolateral aspects of the cranium.
Cranial bone. A shell-shaped bone that forms the anterior aspect of the cranium.
Cranial bone. A saucer-shaped bone that forms the majority of the cranium's posterior aspect. In the base of the _______ ______ is the foramen magnum, through which the brain connects with the spinal cord.
The region where the frontal, parietal and temporal bones join together.
The joint that allows the movement of the lower jaw. It is a synovial condyloid joint and allows five movements - all of which we use during chewing and talking.
Located superior to the TMJ and it is anterior to where the skull sits on the top of the vertebral column.
Membrane filled spaces which exist between the cranial bones at birth. They allow compression of the fetal skull during birth, and rapid growth of the brain during infancy.
Consists of 33 individual vertebrae, 24 of which form a flexible column. It has five major divisions: Cervical (7 bones), thoracic (12, lumbar (5), sacrum (5 fused to bones) and coccyx (4 fused bones)
Main muscle for chewing
Causes the hips to push forwards, the upper back to round and will cause lower back and neck problems.
Relives stress on spine and takes weight off the back.
What type of joint is the TMJ?
Synovial, condyloid joint
How are facial muscles unique to other muscles?
They insert into the skin as well as onto bone
What are the movements of the TMJ?
Opening (mandibular depression) , closing (mandibular elevation), protraction, retraction and lateral excursion.
Lumbar and Sacral (fused into the sacrum) Division
Contains 5 Vertebrae
Contains 4 Vertebrae
Normal inward curvature of the lumber and cervical regions of the spine
Abnormal outward curvature of the spine causing hunching of the back. Curvature regions include sacral, coccygeal and thoracic.
C1 - Atlas
It has a thickened bony ring which supports the head, no body or spinous process. The atlanto-occipital joint (between the occipital condyle on the skull and C1, the atlas) allows flexion and extension, lateral flexion, and a small degree of rotation.
C2 - Axis
Has a long, peg like process called the dens or odontoid process. This process sits inside the vertebral foramen of the atlas.
Located between the condyles on the occipital bone and the facets on the superior surface of the atlas. It is a synovial, biaxial, ellipsoid joint which allows the movements flexion/extension (main movements) and lateral flexion of the head.
Located between the dens of the axis and the inferior articular facet of the atlas. It is a synovial pivot joint and allows for the movement rotation.
A fibrocartilaginous disc separates the vertebrae from each other. These account for about ¼ of the total length of the vertebral column. Discs increase in thickness as they descend the vertebral column with the thickest discs in the lumbar region and the thinnest in the cervical region. Discs are very important in the movement of the spine as they provide the elasticity to accommodate movement and help to absorb shock.
Difference between primary and secondary curves
The ______ ______ are the curves that we are born with (a C shape). The _______ ______curve in the opposite direction as a result of controlling our head at 3 months and walking at 1 year. They develop in response to parts of development in early childhood when controlling our bodies against gravity is required.
Vertebrae construction. A thick disc shaped mess which bears weight
Vertebral Construction. The posterior portion of each vertebra. This consists of four parts: the right and left Pericles and the right and left laminate. The Pericles each form one of the lateral sides of the arch, while the laminate form the posterior of the arch.
Opening through which the spinal cord runs
Opening between the notched pairs of the vertebrae where a spinal nerve emerges
The posterior spinous process is a projection that can be palpated down the posterior surface of your own spine.
Lateral extensions from the vertebral arch.
Superior and Inferior articular facets
Facets for articulating with the vertebrae above and below
Type of joint found in the vertebral column
Transvserse foramen is an opening on each of the transverse processes which gives passage to the vertebral artery and vein and a sympathetic nerve plexuss.
Consequences of age for Intervertebral Discs
Loses water content, making them shrink and become more fibrous. As a result there is a decrease in intervertebral space, a loss of range of motion of the spine and a decrease in height.
Consequences of Disc Injury
Loss of ROM (Range of Motion) meaning restricted movement, upper arm ROM is affected (movements such as as reaching), a loss of shock absorption affects walking and of course, pain which further hinders a persons movement.
Has 7 vertebrae, the vertebrae size is small and the size of the transverse Foramen is large.
Cervical region - Spinous Process
Bifid and short, except for C7, which is much longer
Cervical Region - Transverse Processes
U-shaped to allow cervical spinal nerves passage. There is a transverse Foramen for an arty that supplies the brain
Cervical Region - Articular Processes
Flat, face up/down not anterior/posterior
Cervical Region - Movements
Flexion and extension, lateral flexion and rotation
Has 12 Vertebrae, the vertebrae size are medium and the size of the transverse Foramen is small
Thoracic Region - Spinous process
Posterior projection, long and over lapping
Thoracic Region - Transverse Processes
Has articular facets for ribs
Thoracic Region - Articular Process
Superior process, faces posteriorly, inferior faces anteriorly
Thoracic Region - Movement
Flexion and extension, lateral flexion (limited by ribs) and rotation
Has 5 vertebrae, the size of the vertebrae are large and the size of the transverse foramen is medium
Lumbar Region - Spinous Process
Posterior projection, short, blunt
Lumbar Region - Transverse Processes
Transverse Processes - Short
Lumbar Region - Articular Processes
Large. Superior recess faces posteriorly and inferior process faces anteriorly
Lumbar Region - Movements
Flexion/extension, some limited lateral flexion, no rotation
Is a triangular shape and is formed by the fusion of five vertebrae. It serves as a strong foundation for the pelvic girdle. The body's COG is located around this part promontory.
Is formed by the fusion of 4 vertebrae. Consists of small triangular bones. Provides some support to pelvic organs through the nearly 'useless' vestigial tail.
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