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Pharmacology - Chapter 12 (Oral Conditions & Their Treatment)
Terms in this set (57)
_________________ is also called Vincent's infection and trench mouth. It has both bacteriologic and environmental factors. These include spirochetes, and stress or debilitation.
Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG)
ANUG is a spreading ulcer associated with a distinctive odor. The main symptoms are __________
painful, bleeding gums and ulceration of the interdental papillae.
The majority of ANUG cases respond dramatically to local treatment such as _______
oral prophylaxis with scaling.
With ANUG, Antibiotics should be considered only if the patient is ______________ or if evidence of ____________ exists. Penicillin VK and metronidazole are useful.
Herpes infections are ___________ in patients with normal immunity
Herpes infections treatment drugs:
Why should antiviral drugs not be used prophylactically in the nonimmunocompromised patient?
(Excessive use of acyclovir may lead to resistant strains of herpes.)
It is important to understand that topical _________ ointment
affect the course of recurrent herpes in the immunocompetent patient. This may be the result of poor penetration or delay in applying the ointment.
_____________ is available as tablets, capsules, oral suspension, ointment, cream, and parenteral forms. It is approved for treatment of primary and recurrent HSV in the immunocompromised patient. In the nonimmunocompromised patient, The oral form is indicated for both treatment of the primary outbreak and prophylaxis.
________________ which is available only topically, has been shown to reduce by one-half day the duration and pain of lesions on the lips and face associated with both primary and recurrent herpes simplex.
The advantages of penciclovir over acyclovir are that penciclovir can _____________
achieve a higher concentration within the cell and it remains in the cells longer.
_______________ is the only antiviral drug available without a prescription to treat recurrent herpes simplex virus. It is available as a topical 10% cream. It has been shown to reduce the duration by about one-half day.
Acute localized varicella-zoster infections
Recurrent genital herpes
-Acute localized varicella-zoster infections
-Recurrent genital herpes
__________ and ____________ are prodrugs that are converted to active antiviral agents.
Famciclovir and valacyclovir
______________ is indicated for serious cytomegalovirus retinitis in immunocompromised patients.
____________ tablets taken orally once daily can be used to treat chronic candidiasis.
Systemic alternatives for candidiasis include either ________ or ____________ however, these agents should be continued for at least 2 weeks and/or at least 2 to 3 days past the time when the symptoms have disappeared.
fluconazole or itraconazole
Topical products available to treat oral candidiasis include __________ and __________
_____________ appears as simple redness, fissures, erosion, ulcers, and crusting located at the angles of the mouth. It may or may not be painful.
Treatments for Angular cheilitis/cheilosis
- Antifungal agents
- Antifungal + steroids
- Vitamin B supplements
Alveolar osteitis 3 predisposing factors
1. oral contraceptive use
2. menstrual cycle phase
3. smoking increases likelihood
Treatment for alveolar osteitis
1. rinsing with saline h2o
3. placement of a pack
5. supportive therapy
Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is sometimes referred to as a ________
Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) presents clinically as a few small to many large ulcers. Three distinct types have been clinically identified: ___________ _________ and ________
minor, major, and herpetiforme.
___________ have been the mainstay of therapy for Recurrent aphthous stomatitis for years
In severe cases of RAS, a short course of ____________ (40 mg/day) may be indicated.
____________ is a skin condition that often involves lesions on the oral mucous membranes. Oral lesions are present without skin lesions in 65% of the cases.
Lichen planus can present in three forms: ________, ________ and ______
striated, plaque-like, and erosive.
The most characteristic type of lichen planus is __________; this lesion has a white lacelike pattern that intersects to form a reticular pattern.
Etiology of Lichen Planus is unknown but the current hypotheses include a _________ infection, an ___________ disease, and a __________ reaction to an unknown agent.
Treatment of Lichen Planus depends on symptoms and includes 3 things...
1. oral and topical steroids
2. oral retinoids
Treatment of geographic tongue
reassurance and avoidance of irritating food or alcohol
Burning mouth or tongue syndrome has been called __________ and ___________
glossodynia and glossopyrosis.
Glossodynia is a ________
An inflammatory response that is produced when food and bacteria become trapped between the operculum and the tooth
Treatment of Pericoronitis
- Debridement with saline irrigation
- Use of warm saline rinses
- Antibiotics for aggressive infection
Treatment for postirradiation caries
- Meticulous oral hygiene
- Short duration between subsequent recall appointments
- Artificial saliva
- Self-application of sodium fluoride gel four times daily in a bite guard
Treatment options for root sensitivity
- Home brushing with concentrated sodium chloride and 0.4% stannous fluoride
- Sodium fluoride in tray
- Desensitizing dentifrices
- Amorphous calcium phosphate
Current research indicates that root sensitivity caused by recession, bleaching, or abrasion may be successfully treated with _________
amorphous calcium phosphate.
ILong-term exposure of the lip to the sun can cause irreversible tissue changes known as __________. These sun-related changes occur near the vermilion border of the lips and can progress to malignancy.
treatment for actinic lip changes
Apply sunscreen preparations with higher sun protective factors before sun exposure
If keratotic changes have occurred, treatment is topical 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), an antineoplastic agent that promotes sloughing of the skin
An inflammation of the mucus lining the cheeks, gums, tongue, lips, throat, and roof or floor of the mouth
Caused by poor oral hygiene, poorly fitting dentures, mouth burns from hot food or drinks, or by conditions that affect the entire body, such as medications, allergic reactions, radiation therapy, or infections
treatment for stomatitis
based on its cause and usually includes good oral hygiene
Treatment for drug induced xerostomia
- Caries prevention
- Artificial saliva
- Home care
- Change in medication or reduction in dose
- Cevimeline hydrochloride (Evoxac)
Certain drugs may produce an increase in saliva termed sialosis, sialism, or sialorrhea.
One example is the cholinergic agent __________.
Potential for a hypersensitivity reaction is determined by for things:
1. Particular drug
2. Frequency of administration
3. Route of administration
4. Patient's immune system
___________may be hyperimmune responses triggered by an antigenic component of the drug or its metabolite.
Many drugs are associated with eruptions that resemble lichen planus. The most common drug is _________
___________ are incorporated into forming teeth and thereby stain the teeth.
____________ is thought to produce a blue-gray coloration to the bone in adult teeth.
___________ and _________ can also cause extrinsic staining.
Chlorhexidine rinse and liquid iron preparations
3 drugs that cause gingival enlargement
Calcium channel blockers (Nifedipine)
_________ are used for many oral lesions, especially those with a component of inflammation or immune response.
Which is the most commonly used systemic steroid?
If topical corticosteroid therapy is ineffective, or if the condition is severe, then ____________may be indicated.
__________ treatment is designed to make the patient more comfortable
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