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Project Quality Management (Chap 8)
Terms in this set (47)
A histogram, ordered by frequency of occurrence, that shows how many results were generated by each identified cause. Vertical bar chart and used to identify the vital few sources that are responsible for causing most of the problem's effects. Typically organized into categories that measure either frequencies or consequences.
Choosing part of a population of interest for inspection. Frequency and sizes should be determined during the Plan Quality Management process so the cost of quality will include the number of tests, expected scrap, etc.
Analytical technique that uses mathematical models to forecast future outcomes based on historical results. It is a method of determining the variance from a baseline of a budget, cost, schedule, or scope parameter by using prior progress reporting periods' date and projecting how much that parameter's variance from baseline might be at some future point in the project if no changes are made in executing the project.
The degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfills requirements.
A category or rank used to distinguish items that have the same functional use (e.g. Hammer) but do not share the same requirements for quality (e.g. different hammers may need to withstand different amounts of force).
Perform Quality Assurance
The process of auditing the quality requirements and the results from quality control measurements to ensure that appropriate quality standards and operational definitions are used.
The process of monitoring and recording results of executing the quality activities to assess performance and recommended necessary changes.
Should be used during the project executing and closing phases to formally demonstrate, with reliable data, that the sponsor and/or customer's acceptance criteria have been met.
Quality Control Measurements
The documented results of control quality activities. They should be captured in the format that was specified through the Plan Quality Management process.
A philosophy or practices that focus upon continuous improvement of processes which aims to eliminate waste, humanize the workplace, eliminate hard work and teach the scientific method as applied to daily work.
Plan Quality Management
The process of identifying quality requirements and/or standards for the project and its deliverables, and documenting how the project will demonstrate compliance with quality requirements. Provides guidance and direction on how quality will be managed and validated throughout the project.
Project Quality Management
Project Quality Management includes the processes and activities of the performing organization that determine quality policies, objectives, and responsibilities so that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken.
Within the quality management system, it is an assessment of correctness.
Within the quality management system, it is a measure of exactness.
Within the quality management system, a state of fulfillment in which the needs of a customer are met or exceeded for the customer's expected experiences as assessed by the customer at the moment of evaluation.
Prevention Over Inspection
Quality should be planned, designed, and built into - not inspected into the project's management or project's deliverables.
Quality Management Approaches
Customer Satisfaction, Prevention Over Inspection, Continuous Improvements, Management Responsibility, Cost of Quality (COQ)
Cost of quality (COQ))
A method of determining the costs incurred to ensure quality. Prevention and appraisal costs (cost of conformance) include costs for quality planning, quality control (QC), and quality assurance to ensure compliance to requirements (i.e., training, QC systems, etc.). Failure costs (cost of nonconformance) include costs to rework products, components, or processes that are non-compliant, costs of warranty work and waste, and loss of reputation.
Primary benefits of meeting quality requirements include less rework, higher productivity, lower costs, increased stakeholder satisfaction, and increased profitability. For each quality activity compares the cost of the quality step to the expected benefit.
Seven Basic Quality Tools
A standard toolkit used by quality management professionals who are responsible for planning, monitoring, and controlling the issues related to quality in an organization.
Cause and Effect Diagram
A decomposition technique that helps trace an undesirable effect back to its root cause. Also know as "fishbone" or "Ishikawa" diagrams.
The depiction in a diagram format of the inputs, process actions, and outputs of one or more processes within a system. Also known as "process maps". Prove useful in understanding and estimating the cost of quality in a process. Support the horizontal value chain of the SIPOC model.
A tally sheet that can be used as a checklist when gathering data.
A special form of bar chart used to describe the central tendency, dispersion, and shape of a statistical distribution. Does not consider the influence of time on the variation that exists within a distribution.
A correlation chart that uses a regression line to explain or to predict how the change in an independent variable will change a dependent variable. Used to determine whether or not a process is stable or has predictable performance. Upper and lower specification limits are based on the requirements.
A correlation chart that uses a regression line to explain or to predict how the change in an independent variable will change a dependent variable.
Benchmarking is the comparison of actual or planned practices, such as processes and operations, to those of comparable organizations to identify best practices, generate ideas for improvement, and provide a basis for measuring performance.
Design of Experiments (DOE)
A statistical method for identifying which factors may influence specific variables of a product or process under development or in production.
Process Improvement Plan
A subsidiary plan of the project management plan. It details the steps for analyzing processes to identify activities that enhance their value.
A group creativity technique that allows large numbers of ideas to be classified into groups for review and analysis.
Process Decision Program Charts (PDPC)
The PDPC is used to understand a goal in relation to the steps for getting to the goal. Useful as a method for contingency planning because it aids teams in anticipating intermediate steps that could derail achievement of the goal.
A quality management planning tool, the interrelationship digraphs provide a process for creative problem-solving in moderately complex scenarios that possess intertwined logical relationships.
A systematic diagram of a decomposition hierarchy used to visualize as parent-to-child relationships a systematic set of rules.
A quality management planning tool used to identify key issues and evaluate suitable alternatives to define a set of implementation priorities.
Activity Network Diagrams
Used to project scheduling methodologies such as program evaluation and review technique, critical path method, and precedence diagramming method.
A quality management and control tool used to perform data analysis within the organizational structure created in the matrix. The matrix diagram seeks to show the strength of relationships between factors, causes, and objectives that exist between the rows and columns that form the matrix.
A process analysis follows the steps outlined in the process improvement plan to identify needed improvements.
A quality audit is a structured, independent process to determine if project activities comply with organizational and project policies, processes, and procedures.
A structured tool used to verify that a set of required steps has been performed.
Quality Function Deployment (QFD)
A facilitated workshop technique that helps to determine critical characteristics for new product development.
Quality Management and Control Tools
They are a type of quality planning tools used to link and sequence the activities identified.
Quality Management Plan
A component of the project or program management plan that describes how an organization's quality policies will be implemented.
Quality Management System
The organizational framework whose structure provides the policies, processes, procedures, and resources required to implement the quality management plan. The typical project quality management plan should be compatible to the organization's quality management system.
A description of a project or product attribute and how to measure it.
Specific to the Project Quality Management Knowledge Area, it establishes the basic principles that should govern the organization's actions as it implements its system for quality management.
A condition or capability that will be used to assess conformance by validating the acceptability of an attribute for the quality of a result.
Examining or measuring to verify whether an activity, component, product, result, or service conforms to specified requirements.
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