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a. Beliefs, norms, attitudes, values, expectations, traditions, ideas, behaviors. Language, law of society

Characteristics of a society



Values and standards of behaviors are held in common
-Corporate America


We learn about our culture by growing up in it)
-Catch with dad


Cultural currency is based on symbols such as language, images in art, icons in religion and coins in money)
i. Phillies Phanatic- Baseball symbol; mascot


(All parts of a culture are inter-related)
i. Everything is affected by each other, change a piece of a puzzle, everything is affected

Mechanisms of cultural change

Cultural Lose


(a chance discovery that gains widespread acceptance)
i. TV
ii. Box TV to flat screen TV, having more then one TV per house


the spread of customs from one culture to another)
i. McDonalds
ii. Kobe Bryant- Promoting brand in Japan

Cultural Lose

change as a result of the loss of a cultural tradition)
i. TV replacing the radio
ii. Landline phones to Cell phones


exchange of cultural features as a result of prolonged contact between groups)
i. Sports changing attitudes about race, gender and aging
ii. Vikings to Eagles

American culture is shaped by the extent to which American society is:

Urban (phillies)
Rural (Sandlot)
Pluralist (Us)
Single (Japan)

How leisure shapes American culture (When a pattern of leisure involvement becomes very popular, the pattern of leisure involvement shapes the culture.)

a. Fitness
i. Marketed, watched examples (Biggest Loser, Fit TV)
b. Tourism
i. Watch other takes trips, read blogs (Travel Channel, Scrapbook)
c. Sports
i. Read, fantasy, movies, honor the past (Rocky)

Sport, recreation, tourism and leisure reflect values, transmit values, and can even change values

Reflecting values (Leisure is a mirror of values held in the larger society)
i. Youth- Ex. Facials (looking young)
ii. Technology- Ex. Nike Plus
iii. Materialism- Ex: cant have a regular couch, it have to be a NFL couch

Plaga (Latin)

Blow, Stroke, or Thrust
i. Ex. Golf and Baseball


Game, Sport, Skirmish, Fight or Battle
i. Competition

Kraus Definition of Play

i. Play associated with children and adults
ii. Think of play as unstructured
iii. Can be passive and serious
iv. Instinctive
v. Learned activity
vi. Social functions (rules and regulations)
vii. Religious (reawakening)
viii. Warfare (strategy)
ix. Art (beautiful)

Recreatio (Latin

That Which Refreshes or Restores
i. Refreshes and restores energy in our lives

Definition of recreation

Personal Experience
Human Experience
Academic Discipline
Social instituion

Murphy and Williams

¨ Behavior, motivators
¨ Associative- find each other in setting, paths cross (ex. Collecting stamps)
¨ Competitive
¨ Risk takes- skydiving
¨ Exploratory- being able to explore (ex. Hiking)
¨ Vicarious- live thought activity of others
¨ Sensory- uses all senses
¨ Physical- zumba, jogging


playful, competitive, physical activity engages in primarily for the enjoyment of the participants


is a serious, highly competitive, physical activity requiring strength, agility and stamina, engages in primarily for the enjoyment of spectators


defined as the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited."


Practice of traveling for recreation
guidance or management of tourist
promotion and encouragement of touring


generous and cordial reception or welcome of guests

offering of a pleasant environment
the provisions of lodging, accommodation and food service for people when they are away from home


. Schole (Greek) Leisure- took very seriously, way of life, use it wisely (highest form)
b. Licere (Latin)- To Be Permitted, To Be Free- freedom of activities
c. Loisir (French)- Free Time
d. Academic Discipline- scholars have wrestled with concept, what is it?
e. Social Institution- rules, regulations, laws and guidelines

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