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Bio Chapter 21 vocabulary
Terms in this set (99)
A fruit of a flowering plant in which the some of the flesh is derived from tissues other than the ovary; examples include apples and pears.
A fruit of a flowering plant that develops from the merger of several different ovaries that were separate in the flower.
Convenience term encompassing various distantly related groups of aquatic, photosynthetic eukaryotes.
Flowering plants; one of the two major groups of living seed plants. (See also gymnosperms.)
(an′ thur) [Gk. anthos: flower] A pollen-bearing portion of the stamen of a flower.
(an′ thur id′ ee um) [Gk. antheros: blooming] The multicellular structure that produces the sperm in nonvascular land plants and ferns.
(ar′ ke go′ nee um) The multicellular structure that produces eggs in nonvascular land plants, ferns, and gymnosperms.
(kar′ pel) [Gk. karpos: fruit] The organ of the flower that contains one or more ovules.
The most abundant and diverse group of green algae, including freshwater, marine, and terrestrial forms; some are unicellular, others colonial, and still others multicellular. Chlorophytes use chlorophylls a and c in their photosynthesis.
Multicellular green algae characterized by flattened growth form composed of thin-walled cells. Thought to be the sister-group to the stoneworts plus land plants.
(1) In conifers, a reproductive structure consisting of spore-bearing scales extending from a central axis. (Contrast with strobilus.)
conifers (Pinophyta or Coniferophyta)
Cone-bearing, woody seed plants.
(ko role′ lah) [L. corolla: a small crown] All of the petals of a flower, collectively.
(kot′ ul lee′ dun) [Gk. kotyledon: hollow space] A "seed leaf." An embryonic organ that stores and digests reserve materials; may expand when seed germinates.
Palmlike gymnosperms with large, compound leaves.
(dye cot′ oh mus) [Gk. dichot: split in two; tomia: removed] A branching pattern in which the shoot divides at the apex producing two equivalent branches that subsequently never overlap.
(die eesh′ us) [Gk. di: two + oikos: house] Pertaining to organisms in which the two sexes are "housed" in two different individuals, so that eggs and sperm are not produced in the same individuals. Examples: humans, fruit flies, date palms. (Contrast with monoecious.)
In angiosperms, a process in which the nuclei of two sperm fertilize one egg. One sperm's nucleus combines with the egg nucleus to produce a zygote, while the other combines with the same egg's two polar nuclei to produce the first cell of the triploid endosperm (the tissue that will nourish the growing plant embryo).
[Gk. en: within + bryein: to grow] A young animal, or young plant sporophyte, while it is still contained within a protective structure such as a seed, egg, or uterus.
See land plants.
[Gk. endo: within + sperma: seed] A specialized triploid seed tissue found only in angiosperms; contains stored nutrients for the developing embryo.
Angiosperms with two embryonic cotyledons; one of the two largest clades of angiosperms. (See also monocots.)
The group of vascular plants that is sister to the lycophytes and which includes all plants with megaphylls.
ferns (Pteridopsida or Polypodiopsida)
Vascular plants usually possessing large, frondlike leaves that unfold from a "fiddle head." As used in this book, this name refers to a monophyletic clade, also known as the leptosporangiate ferns.
In angiosperms, an elongated, tapering sclerenchyma cell, usually with a thick cell wall, that serves as a support function in xylem. (See also muscle fiber.)
In flowers, the part of a stamen that supports the anther.
The sexual structure of an angiosperm.
In angiosperms, a ripened and mature ovary (or group of ovaries) containing the seeds. Sometimes applied to reproductive structures of other groups of plants.
(gam uh tan′ gee um) (plural: gametangia) [Gk. gamos: marriage + angeion: vessel] Any plant or fungal structure within which a gamete is formed.
(ga meet′ oh fyte) In plants and photosynthetic protists with alternation of generations, the multicellular haploid phase that produces the gametes. (Contrast with sporophyte.)
A gymnosperm group with only one living species. The ginkgo seed is surrounded by a fleshy tissue not derived from an ovary wall and hence not a fruit.
Unicellular freshwater algae with chloroplasts containing traces of peptidoglycan, the characteristic cell wall material of bacteria.
A gymnosperm group with three very different lineages; all have wood with vessels, unlike other gymnosperms.
green plants (Viridiplantae)
Organisms with chlorophylls a and b, cellulose-containing cell walls, starch as a carbohydrate storage product, and chloroplasts surrounded by two membranes.
Seed plants with seeds not enclosed in carpels. (See also angiosperms.)
(het′ er os′ por us) Producing two types of spores, one of which gives rise to a female megaspore and the other to a male microspore. (Contrast with homosporous.)
Producing a single type of spore that gives rise to a single type of gametophyte, bearing both female and male reproductive organs. (Contrast with heterosporous.)
Nonvascular plants with sporophytes that grow from the base. Cells contain a single large, platelike chloroplast.
horsetails (Sphenophyta or Equisetophyta)
Vascular plants with reduced megaphylls in whorls.
A flower lacking either functional stamens or functional carpels. (Contrast with perfect flower.)
A structure composed of several to many flowers.
[L. integumentum: covering] A protective surface structure. In gymnosperms and angiosperms, a layer of tissue around the ovule which will become the seed coat.
land plants (Embryophyta)
Plants with embryos that develop within protective structures; also called embryophytes. Sporophytes and gametophytes are multicellular. Land plants possess a cuticle. Major groups are the liverworts, mosses, hornworts, and vascular plants.
Nonvascular plants lacking stomata; stalk of sporophyte elongates along its entire length.
Vascular plants characterized by microphylls; includes club mosses, spike mosses, and quillworts.
A major group of angiosperms possessing two cotyledons and pollen grains with a single opening. The group is defned primarily by nucleotide sequence data; it is more closely related to the eudicots and monocots than to three other small angiosperm groups.
In heterosporous plants, the female gametophyte; produces eggs. (Contrast with microgametophyte.)
The generally large leaf of a fern, horsetail, or seed plant, with several to many veins. (Contrast with microphyll.)
The structures on a heterosporous plant that produce a few large megaspores (which develop into female gametophytes).
[Gk. megas: large + spora: to sow] In plants, a haploid spore that produces a female gametophyte.
In conifers, the female (seed-bearing) cone. (Contrast with microstrobilus.)
In heterosporous plants, the male gametophyte; produces sperm. (Contrast with megagametophyte.)
A small leaf with a single vein, found in club mosses and their relatives. (Contrast with megaphyll.)
(mike′ roh pile) [Gk. mikros: small + pylon: gate] Opening in the integument(s) of a seed plant ovule through which pollen grows to reach the female gametophyte within.
The structures on a heterosporous plant that produce many small microspores (which develop into male gametophytes).
[Gk. mikros: small + spora: to sow] In plants, a haploid spore that produces a male gametophyte.
In conifers, male pollen-bearing cone. (Contrast with megastrobilus.)
A group of vascular plants, sister to the seed plants, characterized by overtopping and possession of megaphylls; includes the horsetails and ferns.
Angiosperms with a single embryonic cotyledon; one of the two largest clades of angiosperms. (See also eudicots.)
(mo nee′ shus) [Gk. mono: one + oikos: house] Pertaining to organisms in which both sexes are "housed" in a single individual that produces both eggs and sperm. (In some plants, these are found in different flowers within the same plant.) Examples include corn, peas, earthworms, hydras. (Contrast with dioecious.)
Nonvascular plants with true stomata and erect, "leafy" gametophytes; sporophytes elongate by apical cell division.
A fruit derived from carpels of several flowers. An example is a pineapple.
nonvascular land plants
Land plants that lack specialized vascular tissues for the conduction of water or nutrients through the plant body. There are three living species of nonvascular land plants: the liverworts, hornworts, and mosses.
(oh′ var ee) [L. ovum: egg] A female organ, in plants or animals, that produces ova (eggs).
Plant growth pattern in which one branch differentiates from and grows beyond the others.
(oh′ vule) In plants, a structure comprising the megasporangium and the integument, which develops into a seed after fertilization.
A flower with both stamens and carpels; a hermaphroditic flower. (Contrast with imperfect flower.)
[Gk. petalon: spread out] In an angiosperm flower, a sterile modified leaf, nonphotosynthetic, frequently brightly colored, and often serving to attract pollinating insects.
(flo′ um) [Gk. phloos: bark] In vascular plants, the vascular tissue that transports sugars and other solutes from sources to sinks.
A red accessory photosynthetic pigment found in red algae.
[L. pistillum: pestle] The structure of an angiosperm flower within which the ovules are borne. May consist of a single carpel, or of several carpels fused into a single structure. Usually differentiated into ovary, style, and stigma.
Plantae (Plantae or Archaeplastida)
The most broadly defned plant group. In most parts of this book, we use the word "plant" as synonymous with "land plant", a more restrictive defnition.
[L. pollin: fine flour] In seed plants, microscopic grains that contain the male gametophyte (microgametophyte) and gamete (microspore).
A structure that develops from a pollen grain through which sperm are released into the megagametophyte.
The process of transferring pollen from an anther to the stigma of a pistil in an angiosperm or from a strobilus to an ovule in a gymnosperm.
red algae (Rhodophyta)
Mostly multicellular, marine and freshwater algae characterized by the presence of phycoerythrin in their chloroplasts.
(rye′ zoids) [Gk. root] Hairlike extensions of cells in mosses, liverworts, and a few vascular plants that serve the same function as roots and root hairs in vascular plants. The term is also applied to branched, rootlike extensions of some fungi and algae.
(rye′ zome) An underground stem (as opposed to a root) that runs horizontally beneath the ground.
A group of early vascular plants that appeared in the Silurian and became extinct in the Devonian. Possessed dichotomously branching stems with terminal sporangia but no true leaves or roots.
In plants, growth that contributes to an increase in girth. (Contrast with primary growth.)
A fertilized, ripened ovule of a gymnosperm or angiosperm. Consists of the embryo, nutritive tissue, and a seed coat.
seed plants (Spermatophyta)
Heterosporous vascular plants that produce seeds; most produce wood; branching is axillary (not dichotomous). The major seed plant groups are gymnosperms and angiosperms.
(see′ pul) [L. sepalum: covering] One of the outermost structures of the flower, usually protective in function and enclosing the rest of the flower in the bud stage.
A fruit derived from a single ovary; examples include grapes and tomatoes.
Clusters of stalked sporangia that occur on the underside of fern fronds.
(spor an′ gee um) (plural: sporangia) [Gk. spora: seed + angeion: vessel or reservoir] In plants and fungi, any specialized structure within which one or more spores are formed.
[Gk. spora: seed] (1) Any asexual reproductive cell capable of developing into an adult organism without gametic fusion. In plants, haploid spores develop into gametophytes, diploid spores into sporophytes. (2) In prokaryotes, a resistant cell capable of surviving unfavorable periods.
(spor′ o fyte) [Gk. spora: seed + phyton: plant] In plants and protists with alternation of generations, the diploid phase that produces the spores. (Contrast with gametophyte.)
(stay′ men) [L. stamen: thread] A male (pollen-producing) unit of a flower, usually composed of an anther, which bears the pollen, and a filament, which is a stalk supporting the anther.
[L. stigma: mark, brand] The part of the pistil at the apex of the style that is receptive to pollen, and on which pollen germinates.
Multicellular green algae with branching, apical growth and plasmodesmata between adjacent cells. The closest living relatives of the land plants, they retain the egg in the parent organism.
All of the green plants other than chlorophytes.
(plural: strobili) One of several conelike structures in various groups of plants (including club mosses, horsetails, and conifers) associated with the production and dispersal of reproductive products.
[Gk. stylos: pillar or column] In the angiosperm flower, a column of tissue extending from the tip of the ovary, and bearing the stigma or receptive surface for pollen at its apex.
(tray′ kee id) A type of tracheary element found in the xylem of nearly all vascular plants, characterized by tapering ends and walls that are pitted but not perforated. (Contrast with vessel element.)
See vascular plants.
vascular plants (Tracheophyta)
Plants with xylem and phloem. Major groups include the lycophytes and euphyllophytes.
A type of tracheary element with perforated end walls; found only in angiosperms. (Contrast with tracheid.)
(zy′ lum) [Gk. xylon: wood] In vascular plants, the tissue that conducts water and minerals; xylem consists, in various plants, of tracheids, vessel elements, fibers, and other highly specialized cells.
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