Sociology 101 Midterm: Quizzes 1-8
Terms in this set (100)
Reference groups are _____.
Groups people identify with psychologically
Social groups are important in the lives of _____.
_____ are usually voluntary associations.
An achieved status is ______.
Chosen or earned
The family is a primary group. (true or false)
Groups are organizations with clearly stated goals. (true or false)
Best friends form primary groups. (true or false)
Role conflict occurs _____.
When two or more statuses are incompatible
Reference groups give us an important source of information about ourselves. (true or false)
A unique factor in peer groups is _____.
The wild boy probably had different ways of doing things because he _____.
Learned different things when he lived in the wild
According to sociologists, why do children develop slowly when they are isolated?
They have not been stimulated in interaction.
Behavior appropriate to members of one's own sex is _____.
Learned through socialization
The looking-glass self is based on our interpretation of how others see us. (true or false)
How does the mass media teach gender role behavior?
-through songs, ads, and situation comedies
-based on traditional female stereotypes
-by implying that men are more capable than women
Isabelle was a young girl who had been isolated from birth, and who
developed physically and socially only after she interacted with and was taught by others
We learn human behavior by interacting with others. (true or false)
Goffman compared social interaction to _____.
A drama on stage
We are role-taking when we expect someone to behave in a particular way. (true or false)
Are socialized by their parents and socialize their parents
Demands less imagination than reading
Gender role socialization begins _____.
A person playing baseball treats members of the other team as _____.
Initially, children take the role of only one other person at a time. (true or false)
Spitz's study of children in hospitals showed the difference between the foundling home and the nursing home to be the _____.
amount of social interaction experienced by the children
Cooley theorized that the idea of self required no interaction. (true or false)
Occupational training teaches the attitudes and values associated with an occupation as well as the skills needed to perform occupational tasks. (true or false)
The wild boy of Aveyron _____.
Could tolerate both heat and cold to a greater degree than most humans
Cooley theorized that the idea of self develops in a process that requires _____.
Reference to what others think
Schools teach _____.
The __________ is considered the primary agency of socialization in the United States.
Research has shown that young people in the United States today spend more time _____.
With one another outside of school
Peer group socialization is becoming _____.
Sociobiologists are _____.
biologists who study the genetic basis of behavior
Role-taking is learned by pretending to be someone else. (true or false)
Socialization is the process of _____.
-learning a culture
-learning a language
-learning to walk and talk
The presentation of self is a form of behavior always used to avoid exposure of the real self. (true or false)
The most dramatic type of resocialization is _____.
The mortification of the previous self
Traditionally, the primary agency of socialization was _____.
Gender role socialization in our society begins at about age five. (true or false)
The method of dividing people into groups and then choosing at random from within those groups is known as _____ sampling.
Participant observation means _____.
participating in the activities of people in a classroom
The statement "Age at marriage is negatively related to family size" is an example of _____.
Most participant observation research takes the form of a case study. (true or false)
The scientific standard of replication asserts that _____.
research should be done in such a way that it can be duplicated by others
Observation studies involve watching people in _____.
-labs through one-way windows
Secondary analysis refers to _____.
using data collected for some other purpose
In an experiment, the control group is identical to the experimental group except for what?
The experimental variable is not introduced to the control group.
Reliability is the extent to which repeated observations of the same phenomena yield similar results. (true or false)
Research data are often described using _____.
-mean and median
Cultural lag occurs when changes in technology _____.
occur more rapidly than changes in beliefs and values
A disregard for history indicates _____.
Most values have both positive and negative counterparts. (true or false)
When members of a society generally support its system of law and order but nevertheless drive ten miles over the speed limit, they are _____.
believe in the ideal but act in the real culture of the society
Conformity to the norms of a society usually come from _____.
informal interaction of members of society
Xenocentrism is the belief that one's own culture is inferior to others. (true or false)
When can ethnocentrism be functional for a society?
It builds conformity and cohesiveness.
A preference for foreign imports is an example of _____.
Mores that prohibit something are called _____.
Subcultures are groups that _____.
have values and norms differing in some ways from those of the larger society
Sociology encourages us to look only at how both people and events are unique and different from each other. (true or false)
Microsociology deals with sociological issues such as
the disagreements of a divorcing couple.
Sociologists are actually applied social scientists. (true or false)
Social geographers are chiefly interested in
distributions of people
At the macrosociological level, attempts are made to understand
large-scale structures and processes.
Sociologists study social life to understand
the regular recurrent patterns in social life.
Sociologists believe that we can understand a variety of points of view by studying a variety of societies. (true or false)
Psychology is primarily concerned with
individual mental processes and behavior.
Berger (1963) suggests that the first wisdom of sociology is that things are not always what they seem. (true or false)
Sociological knowledge is based on subjective opinion.
(true or false)
According to Merton, functions that are not intended or recognized are _____.
According to Merton, functions that are intended and recognized in a social system are _____.
Consequences of a social system leading to the breakdown of the system are termed dysfunctions. (true or false)
Spencer believed that planned change would not disrupt the orderly evolution of society. (true or false)
Herbert Spencer believed that societies
pass through an evolutionary process.
According to Mead, the inborn altruism of humans sets us apart from animals. (true or false)
Evolutionary theory suggests that societies are _____.
like biological organisms
Structural functional theory defines function as any _____.
Purpose of the social system
Symbolic interactionists believe society exists _____.
The question of how individuals influence society, and vice versa, is central to sociology. (true or false)
Deviance, according to labeling theory, occurs when a(n) _____.
Act is labeled deviant
The legal system treats all status groups equally. (true or false)
How do conflict theorists differ from that which Merton believes?
People have very different sets of goals
Cesare Lombroso believed that the major determinants of crime were _____.
How do people who are frustrated behave?
Respond in a variety of ways
Deviance is behavior that is labeled deviant. (true or false)
Deviant behavior may vary _____.
- from time to time
- from place to place
- from culture to culture
What does "having a conscience" assume?
You have internalized certain ideas about deviant behavior.
Endomorph, mesomorph, and ectomorph are terms used to describe which of the following?
Any deviation from the norms of a society is considered deviant by those adopting a _____ view.
Hunting and gathering societies are characterized by _____.
less stratification than exists in other societies
Social class is based on the amount of respect our neighbors give us. (true or false)
Mobility in the United States has been influenced least by what?
Why do conflict theorists suggest that stratification occur?
Individuals use coercion and exploitation to accumulate scarce resources
What is the rate of poverty in the United States?
higher than in other countries
Industrial societies have achieved a great deal of equality, more so than other types of societies. (true or false)
According to Weber, social status refers to _____
honor and prestige given by the community
The 2007 median income in the United States for women with full-time jobs is closest to which of the following?
When people assign themselves to a class, they most often define themselves as _____.
Structural functionalists hold that inequality is created by the desires and needs of individuals. (true or false)
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