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Chapter 10-12 Biology
Terms in this set (59)
genome contains recombinant DNA genetic material from another species
what 4 useful things have come about using transgenic organisms
Human Insulin to treat diabetes
Blood clotting factors to treat hemophilia
Fertility hormones for humans
Amino acid phenylalanine used in artificial sweetener aspartame
Cloning is nothing more than....
making the exact copy of an organism (twin)
Which method was used to extract an adult sheep's DNA to put into another sheep's egg cell?
Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer
may someday provide a way to replace genes like cystic fibrosis
the tendancy for traits to be passed from parent to offspring
Who was the first person to systematically study Heredity and is also knows as the Father of Genetics?
different version of the same type of gene
discreet package of DNA and associated proteins
one from mom and one from dad
Exerts its affect whenever present, also called a masking trait by mendel
masked by dominant allele present, also named by Mendel
True or False: If an allele is dominant it is dominant all the time
False, just because its dominant doesn't mean its dominant all the time
True or False: The most common allele is not always the dominant in the population
True, blue eyes are common in northern Europe but are recessive
an individuals alleles at any or all gene loci, the genetic make-up of an individual. What your genes COULD produce
what you see is what you get. An individual's observable traits. An OUTWARD expression of an allele combination or genes.
a grid structure that enables the calculation of the results of simple genetic crosses
mating between 2 heterozygotes for one gene
the frequency of genotypes in the offspring
has 2 alleles identical AA for a trai from different parents
aa 2 recessive traits from different parents
Aa has 2 non identical alleles from different parents
True or false: a testcross can be used to determine the genotype for a trait
True, the purpose of a testcross is to determine if there are hidden alleles
Mendel's Law of Segregation
Monohybrid Crosses--2 alleles of each gene are packaged into separate gametes
Law of Independent Assortment
Doesn't matter what's in the gamete we can assort any variation that we might have. Alleles of different genes move independently into gametes.
linked genes that are carried on the same chromosome
mix of maternal and paternal alleles
retain allele combinations from each parent
Cell shuts off all but one X chromosome in each cell
True or False: Females have a double dose of every gene on the X chromosome
True, females have a double dose of genes on the X chromosome
Phenotype reflects the activities of more than one gene (many genes, one effect)
What is an example of a Polygenetic Trait?
Eye color, multiple genes affect the final color
When products of many genes influence a trait individuals of a population show a range of continuous variation for the trait
What is an example of polygenic inheritance?
Height and skin color. Bell curve distribution, environmental influences
determined by single genes with alleles that are either dominant or recessive
one dominant allele results in the disease from either parent
2 recessive alleles to inherit the disease from both parents
If both parents are carriers could it skip a generation?
Yes, a person could receive a disease causing allele from the mother or the father
Define a "carrier"
a person has a recessive allele for a disease and that allele is masked by a normal dominant allele
relatively short-term changes in allele frequencies within a population or species, on a much smaller scale.
What is Buffon known for?
one of the first to openly suggest that closely related species arose from a common ancestor and were changing
What was Hutton known for?
process of erosion and sedimentaion that act in modern times also occurred in the past, natural processes are slow and occur at constant rate
Who is known as the "Father of Vertebrate Paleontology"?
brief upheavals responsible for most geological formation, life and geology formed by catastrophes.
Principle of Superposition
lower layers of rocks (and fossils) are older than those above them
True or False: Fossils provide evidence for slow change over time?
Lamarck was the first to suggest that.......
animals could change or become extinct in response to interactions with their environment individuals passed on to their offspring and behavioral changes acquired during their life. "Inheritance of acquired characteristics"
Who renewed Uniformitarianism and wrote the book "The Principles of Geology" which Darwin read and carried with him on his voyage?
On his 5 year voyage Charles Darwin and ready Lyell's book and applied Uniformitarianism to his studies how?
Noted similarites and differences among organisms, living and fossil to reconstruct the past from contemporary data
Charles Darwin used which term in stead of Evolution?
Descent with Modification
Who independently proposed a new theory that natural selection can bring about evolution?
Alfred Russell Wallace
What molds Evolution?
humans choose desirable traits and breed only those best expressing those traits
Evolution occurs in populations but not what?
entire collection of genes and their alleles in a population
True or False: Natural Selection leads to more "perfect" organisms
False, it does not yield perfection, but only improvements over what came before. It produces the fitter of the more fit not the fittest. Individuals compete with one another for limited resources and only the fit (fitter) reproduce
Allele frequencies do not change from one generation to the next.
Why is knowing the allele frequencies important?
Because the measure of evolution is a change in allele frequencies
Match the postzygotic reproductive barrier on the left with its description on the right
Today Darwin is often associated primarily with the finches he discovered on the Galapagos Islands. Which of his specimens received the greatest attention when he first returned from his voyage on the Beagle?
Chlamydomonas is unlike plants in that the chlamydomonas...
Ch. 25: (Theory) What evidence most strongly suggests that an impact by an asteroid or meteorite may have caused the extinction of the dinosaurs?
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