25 terms

DNA Replication, Transcription, and Translation

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Terms in this set (...)

DNA
(deoxyribonucleic acid); genetic material located in the nucleus that contains information needed for life. Double Helix.
RNA
(ribonucleic acid); plays an important role in the production of proteins; found in the cytoplasm and nucleus
Adenine
A double-ring nitrogenous base found in DNA and RNA. Pairs with Thymine and Uracil.
Thymine
A single-ring nitrogenous base found in DNA. Pairs with Adenine.
Uracil
Nitrogenous base found only in RNA (not in DNA). Replaces Thymine. Pairs with Adenine
Guanine
A double-ring nitrogenous base found in DNA and RNA. Pairs with Cytosine.
Cytosine
A single-ring nitrogenous base found in DNA and RNA. Pairs with Guanine.
Base Pairing Rules
Rules stating that cytosine pairs with guanine and adenine pairs with thymine in DNA, and that adenine pairs with uracil in RNA. Also known as Chargoff's rules.
Complementary Pairs
nitrogenous bases that normally pair using hydrogen bonds; adenine and thymine vs. cytosine and guanine
Purine
A class of nucleotides that includes adenine and guanine that have a double-ring.
Pyrimidine
A class of nucleotides that includes cytosine, thymine, and uracil that have a single-ring.
Deoxyribose
A five-carbon sugar found in DNA.
Ribose
A five-carbon sugar present in RNA.
Double Helix
Shape of DNA
Nitrogenous Base
A nitrogen containing molecule that is a part of nucleotides. A, T, G, C.
Phosphate Group
A molecule in the backbone of DNA and RNA that links bases
Mutation
A change in the order of the bases in an organism's DNA; deletion, insertion, or substitution.
Central Dogma
DNA -> RNA -> Protein
Helicase
Enzyme that unwinds and unzips the DNA helix
DNA Polymerase
Enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule
RNA Polymerase
An enzyme that links together the growing chain of RNA nucleotides during transcription, using a DNA strand as a template.
Semi-Conservative
In each new DNA double helix, one strand is from the original molecule, and one strand is new
DNA Replication
The process of making a copy of DNA
Transcription
Copying of information from DNA to mRNA
Translation
Formation of a protein based off the mRNA code

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