We The People Ch 6, Ch 7, Ch 12, Ch 13, Ch15

Terms in this set (293)

By 1968, one of the most turbulent years in American history, the number of American troops in Vietnam had risen . Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated, Robert F. Kennedy was assassinated Vice President Hubert Humphrey, who entered the race late and had not won any primaries, became the Democratic nominee.
The Republicans nominated Richard M. Nixon, who was attempting a political comeback after losing the 1960 presidential. Nixon claimed to speak for the "silent majority" of law-abiding citizens whose voices were presumably drowned out amidst the social upheaval, and he promised a return to the stability of the Eisenhower years.
The strategy behind the 1968 Democratic commercials was to convince the public that Hubert Humphrey could be trusted and Richard Nixon could not.
it was easier, and safer, for Humphrey to attack. campaign produced several powerful negative ads reminiscent of Johnson's anti-Goldwater campaign. One spot, which evoked the famous "Daisy Girl" ad by showing images of mushroom cloudes while criticizing Nixon's opposition to the signing of a nuclear nonproliferation treaty, aired during a broadcast of Dr. Strangelove.
Humphrey's positive ads stressed his personality, portraying him as a trustworthy, compassionate man with a commitment to domestic issues such as civil rights, education, and Social Security. One spot, "Voting Booth", openly acknowledged voter apathy.
The centerpiece of the Nixon advertising campaign was series of spots by filmmaker Eugene Jones. With orchestrated montages of still photographs accompanied by jarring, dissonant music, his ads created an image of a country out of control, with crime on the rise, violence in the streets, The ads implicitly linked these problems to the Democratic administration, of which Humphrey was a part.
The most controversial of Jones's ads, "Convention", juxtaposed unflattering still photographs of a smiling Humphrey with images of Vietnam and the chaos of the Democratic convention, all to the ironic accompaniment of the Dixieland song "Hot Time in the Old Town Tonight." The ad implied that Humphrey either had caused these problems or didn't care about them.
Terrorism and the war in Iraq were clearly the central issues of the 2004 presidential
The most influential ads of the campaign were produced by a relatively small PAC committee, Swift Boat Veterans for Truth. Their ads, including "Any Questions?,"
The Internet became an important medium during the 2004 campaign. Candidate Websites functioned as the online equivalent of campaign, used to organize, mobilize, energize, and raise funds from existing supporters. the Democratic and Republican nominees took advantage of new social networking technologies and platforms. The widespread availability of broadband access made it possible for video to be circulated easily on the Web. Web ads tend to be edgier and more provocative than TV commercials, partly because they are often targeted to specific groups with strong opinions about candidates and issues, but also because of the nature of viral video.
the main goal of the President's advertising efforts was to portray Senator Kerry as a flip-flopping liberal in favor of high taxes and reckless cuts in defense spending.
In late June, the Bush campaign issued a Web ad, "Kerry's Coalition of the Wild-Eyed," which attempts to depict Kerry and fellow Democrats as being excessively angry. The controversial ad intercuts images of Adolf Hitler from MoveOn's "Bush in 30 Seconds" competition. Links to the ad were e-mailed to six million supporters, and graced the Websites of major news outlets.
The controversial August ad from Swift Boat Veterans for Truth ("Any Questions?") was the first from an outside group to inspire response ads directly from the opposing campaign (such as "Old Tricks").
before John Kerry became the presumed Democratic nominee, the Democratic Party benefited from anti-Bush ads created Political Action Committees. The MoveOn PAC enlisted help from well-known Hollywood directors and personalities for its ads, and appealed to Internet audiences to fund the television broadcasts. The best MoveOn ads were those made by documentary filmmaker Errol Morris, including "Real People: Rhonda Nix," part of a series of interview ads with Republicans who were disenchanted with President Bush.
while Kerry's positive biographical ads were playing on television, the Democrats and Kerry issued online attack ads using images of President Bush. Capitalizing on increasing public disaffection with events in Iraq, the Democratic National Committee issued "Mistakes Were Made," in which Bush's remarks from an April press conference are set to ominous music.
In the face of strong attack ads from the Bush campaign and from independent groups, Kerry's TV ads became much more aggressive in tone as well, frequently attacking the President on Iraq and the economy. His campaign also created a few response ads for television within hours, such as "Juvenile," a rebuttal of the Bush ad "Windsurfing." The Kerry ad was made on the same day as the Bush ad, and both ads were given free play on the evening news.
In 1984, the economy was in an upswing. Oil prices were low, interest rates were high. The popular President Reagan was earning the label "the Teflon president" for his ability to escape unscathed from setbacks. In October 1983, 241 marines were killed in a terrorist attack in Beirut. The debacle was eclipsed days later by a marine invasion of Grenada, purportedly to save a small group of medical students from the island's new leftist government. Public confidence in the military was restored.
Reagan succeeded in tagging Mondale as a typical free-spending Democrat, and won the most lopsided electoral victory since 1936.
With lush images of Americans buying houses, raising flags, washing cars, going to work, and playing in their yards, all set to swelling music in a montage style familiar from soft-drink and beer commercials, Ronald Reagan ads presented an upbeat image of "Morning in America." Reagan consultant Philip Dusenbery has said that the ads were designed to evoke emotion rather than thought or understanding: "That's the most powerful part of advertising. Reagan campaign produced several ads to defuse Mondale's main attacks. The most memorable spot,"Bear," responded to charges that Reagan had unnecessarily escalated military spending. In the ad a bear, representing the Soviet threat, prowls the woods as the narrator asks, "Isn't it smart to be as strong as the bear—if there is a bear?" Another ad rebutted Mondale's charges that "Reaganomics" was unfair to the middle class by defining "Mondalenomics" as higher taxes. In addition, Reagan's ads consistently tied Mondale to the Carter administration, asking, "Now that our country is turning around, why would we ever turn back?"
George Bush, the incumbent president, enjoyed approval ratings near 90 percent following America's decisive military victory in Operation Desert Storm in 1991
Democrats, nomination Bill Clinton, governor of Arkansas. By early 1992, the U.S. economy was faltering, and Clinton's campaign decided to focus almost exclusively on this issue. A prominently placed sign in Clinton's campaign headquarters read "It's the economy, stupid!" Ironically, because of the fall of the Soviet Union in 1989, which the Republicans took credit for, the Cold War was not an important issue during the campaign, and the Democrats were able to keep the emphasis on domestic concerns.
Bill Clinton's masterfully orchestrated campaign made effective use of free television as well as paid advertising. Cable television provided numerous opportunities for unpaid appearances, whether on talk shows, in televised town meetings, in unedited coverage of campaign events on C-SPAN, or in news specials on MTV. The daytime talk-show format, in which candidates took questions from a live audience, was so popular at the time that it was even used for one of the presidential debates. Clinton proved to be extremely comfortable with this intimate format.
Clinton's ads were consistent in style and message. Attempting to show that his detailed economic plan was solid, many of them used statements of facts and figures, cleanly presented with black letters on a white background, with key words underlined in red. Clinton's commercials were also successful in presenting the candidate as a centrist, with positions that couldn't easily be labeled liberal. One ad stated that Clinton and Gore "don't think the way the old Democratic party did," and cited the ticket's support of the death penalty and their desire to "end welfare as we know it," balance the budget, and cut spending—all traditionally Republican positions.
Bush campaign had trouble finding a strong positive message.