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Construction Plumbing Exam
Terms in this set (54)
Plastic pipe used for drainage waste and vent (DWV) installations is manufactured using IPS, and the inside diameter varies based on the wall thickness.
Three common wall thickness classifications are Schedule (S) 10, 40, and 80.
Must be protected from long-term Ultraviolet Rays
Is flammable when ignited
Has a max temperature rating
PVC is the abbreviation for polyvinyl chloride and is white in color.
maximum temperature rating of 140 Fahrenheit (F).
Pipe or tubing for water distribution systems must be rated at 180° F at 100 psi pressure
Cannot be used for water distribution within the interior of a residence
DWV PVC Pipe
DWV PVC pipe used for residential applications is typically a Schedule 40 (S-40) and can be either a solid type or a cellular-core type.
Foam-core PVC pipe has a zero pressure rating
CPVC is the abbreviation for chlorinated polyvinyl chloride.
Is used for water distribution systems
CPVC pipe is a type of flexible pipe.
It is black in color and used to install DWV systems.
It is not compatible with PVC.
Its maximum water temperature capability is the same as PVC DWV (140F).
The OD of ABS pipe is manufactured to IPS standards.
It also cannot be tested with air pressure or have long-term exposure to UV rays.
used for water service installations and is not allowed by code to be installed on the interior of a residential building.
It is black in color and typically sold in rolls of 100'-0".
It is commonly used for well pump installations because of its long lengths and durability in cold conditions.
PEX is the abbreviation for cross-linked polyethylene
It is used for water distribution systems.
One of the most popular selections due to its productive installation benefits
Four basic types (going from the thinnest wall to the thickest wall):
Type DWV (color coded YELLOW)
Type M (color coded RED)
Type L (color coded BLUE)
Type K (color coded GREEN)
Types differ based on wall thickness.
Most common diameters used in residential plumbing industry 1/4" to 1"
Two types most commonly used in residential plumbing are galvanized and black steel.
Galvanizing is a process that coats steel pipe to minimize corrosion, so it can be used to distribute potable water.
It is used for gas supply piping for residential applications
The most common type of steel pipe is schedule 40.
Various Fitting Designs
Fittings are offered with two basic connection types: fittings receiving pipe and fittings that are inserted into a hub.
A fitting design known as a street fitting has one end that receives pipe and one end that is the same connection type as the pipe.
A wye has three connections and is named based on its similarity to the letter Y.
The side outlet connection is known as a branch.
The 45 branch creates a direction of flow to eliminate disturbance of wastewater within a DWV piping system.
Combo is a trade name for a three-sided fitting that creates a long radius 90 branch (side inlet) that is perpendicular to the run.
A combo is used extensively in the drainage system with the branch and run in the vertical or horizontal positions.
A sanitary tee is a compact fitting with three connections used in drainage and vent systems.
The side connection known as the branch creates a standard radius that is a 90 angle from the run.
The branch has a direction of flow to direct wastewater and sewage through a drainage system.
Its use is strictly regulated by code pertaining to the installation positioning based on the flow direction.
Must flow from horizontal to vertical
Cannot be installed on its back
A toilet is also known as a water closet, and the flange that connects the toilet to the drainage system is called a closet flange.
PVC, ABS, and cast iron are materials commonly used to manufacture closet flanges.
Every fixture must be served with a protective water seal to prevent harmful sewer gas from entering an occupied space.
installed receiving the outlet flow of water from a fixture.
Every residential dwelling is required by code to be provided with at least one isolation valve.
must be installed in a readily accessible location, so homeowner can shut off the water supply in case of emergency or repair.
Most codes dictate that the minimum size of a residential water service is 3/4".
Utilizes an internal ball with a hole in its center.
Creates a flow passageway through the valve.
Isolates flow when the ball is rotated 90 from the flow direction.
The internal ball has a vertical stem protruding from the valve body, to which the lever handle is secured with a tightening nut.
Utilizes a metal gate (disc) that slides vertically to open and close the valve.
A wheel handle raises and lowers the internal gate
The two basic self-explanatory types of gate valves are a rising stem type and a non-rising stem type.
A valve design that uses a rubber washer to stop the flow of water; it is a directional flow isolation valve.
A stop is a restrictive port valve, which is one reason it is no longer widely used in a piping system.
A stop is more popular as an individual fixture isolation valve.
Stop and Waste
A stop and waste valve uses the same design as a stop valve to isolate an entire water distribution system, except that it also has a draining feature.
When freezing is a concern or the need to drain a small portion of a piping system is required, a stop and waste valve is installed.
A stop and waste valve cannot be installed in locations where water could enter the water distribution system through the drain portion.
Backflow of non-potable water could enter the drain port while the water distribution system was not under pressure.
A hose outlet connection that is intended to drain storage tanks is known as a boiler drain.
Protecting a piping system and equipment from extreme temperatures and pressures is the responsibility of a relief valve.
It is mandatory for a safety relief valve to be installed on all new water heaters.
A backflow-prevention device that is installed to ensure the water flows in one direction.
A single check valve is not an approved method to protect a potable water system from contamination
Swing and spring style check valves are the two most common installed for residential applications.
A standard tub in a home is 5-0" in length and averages 30" wide.
The drain location is typically on one end of the tub that is known as the head wall.
Every tub has an overflow hole (port) where a waste and overflow is installed.
Tubs are ordered based on a left-hand or right-hand design.
Washing Machine Box
Provides hot water, cold water, and a drain connection in one central location.
A typical residential washing machine box is manufactured with a hub to receive 2" plastic pipe because most codes dictate that the minimum size drain that can be installed serving a washing machine is 2".
One Btu is the amount of heat required to raise one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit.
One gallon of water weighs 8.33 pounds, and 8.33 Btus are required to raise the temperature of one gallon of water one degree Fahrenheit.
# Btu = (weight of water in lbs)(temp change in °F)
If 10 Btu's are added to 2 lbs of water, what will be the temperature rise?
Each Btu raises 1 lb by 1F, so the temperature rise of 2 lbs due to 10 Btu will be 5F
# Btu = (lbs water)(T)
T = (# Btu) / (lbs water) = 10 Btu / 2 lb = 5F
How much heat is needed to raise the temp of 80 gallons of water from 55 F to 130 F?
Need weight of water: 1 gallon of water weighs 8.3 lbs
# Btu = (lbs of water)(temp change)
# Btu = (80 gal)(8.3 lbs/gal)(130F - 55F)
# Btu = 49,800 Btu
Heating domestic water requires 10's of thousands of Btu per day!!
A water heater that has its connection located on the bottom side of the tank requires a vacuum relief valve.
A manufacturer installs a device known as a dip tube into the cold water connection of a top-fed water heater to route the incoming cold water to the bottom of the heater.
If a dip tube were not used, the incoming cold water would mix with the hot water located in the top of the water heater.
Electric Water Heaters
A standard residential electric water heater is classified as a 240-volt, 4500-watt, non-simultaneous water heater.
The higher the wattage rating, the faster it can heat water.
Water is heated by a device known as a heating element, and the flow of electrical current is regulated by a safety device known as a high limit.
The thermostats on an electric water heater are in contact with the external portion of the storage tank.
The common residential systems are cold water, hot water, hot water return, drain, and vent.
The three different water distribution piping systems have dots inserted to break the solid line.
A vent has a continuous dotted line while a drain is a solid line.
Any use of a solid line is acceptable for identifying other piping systems, and the insertion of the type or abbreviation for a particular system is similar to inserting dots.
Potable water is considered safe for human consumption and is often referred to as drinking water and domestic water.
Ground water (aquifer) is the natural water table below the surface and is the primary source of homes utilizing a well pump system.
A well is typically drilled or bored into the ground, so a pump can extract water from the water table.
Water Service Installation
A water service system is the piping from a water meter or well to the building.
Piping allowed for water service installations can differ from piping used in the internal water distribution system of a home.
Polyethylene (PE) and Poly Vinylchloride (PVC) are two products allowable by code for a water service system, but they are not allowed to be installed in the building for water distribution systems.
Most codes dictate that the smallest size water service is 3/4".
A private system uses a well system that dictates accessories be installed to regulate pressures and volume capacity of the system, such as a storage tank and pressure switch.
Typically, the pressure switch on a well system is set to start the pump at 30 psi and turn off at 60 psi.
For municipal systems or community systems with a water meter, the incoming pressure to a house varies depending on the actual design of the municipal or community system.
Municipal or community water systems must have a pressure-reducing valve if the incoming pressure exceeds 80 psi.
The maximum operating pressure allowable by code for a water distribution system is 80 psi to a fixture.
Burial Depth Requirements
Burial depth requirements of a water service pipe vary based on the frost levels.
Burial depth is measured from the lowest grade of the soil to the top of pipe.
If a water service is installed in the same trench as a drain or sewer, the possibility of backflow could occur.
To protect against this, codes regulate the installation of a water service in the same trench with drainage piping.
A water service installed at the same elevation as a sewer may be illegal in some state or local codes.
Most codes dictate that a water service installed at the same elevation as a sewer must be separated from the sewer by at least 5'-0" of undisturbed or compacted soil.
This code often dictates that a separate trench be excavated.
To avoid excavating a separate trench, some codes allow the water service to be installed in the same trench, but it must be higher than the sewer elevation.
The bottom of the water service must be at least 12" higher than the top of the sewer.
Water Distribution Pipe Sizing
The water distribution system connects to the water service system and has branches that provides water to all of the fixtures within the building.
The sizing of an entire system is established based on the quantity and type of fixtures being served.
Determining the available water of a certain pipe size is based on volume and pressure.
The rate the water flows through the piping is known as velocity.
A discharge fixture unit (dfu) is the designated term to describe the end result of a flow calculation.
The pipe size determines how much water is in a pipe, and the pressure determines how fast that water can be delivered to a fixture.
The two wall types commonly described are load bearing and non-load bearing.
Exterior walls are load bearing
Interior walls are often non-load bearing (they run parallel to the joists) and are classified as partitions
The two common sizes of wall studs are 2" x 4" and 2" x 6".
The joists that separate different levels of a house are floor joists.
Ceiling joists are the structural boards of the highest ceiling in a house.
The two common sizes are 2" x 8" and 2" x 10".
Some codes do not allow holes drilled in the middle one-third of the span while other codes require a joist to be reinforced with exterior grade plywood if a large diameter hole is drilled through it.
Some codes do not allow holes to be drilled in a floor joist that has a load-bearing wall directly above the desired hole location.
Drain Waste and Vents
Every plumbing fixture connected to a drainage system must be protected by a fitting or device known as a trap.
Major Segments of
a DWV System
The major segments of a DWV system
BD: Building Drain
BS: Building Sewer
SV: Stack Vent
VS: Vent Stack
VTR: Vent Through Roof
WS: Waste Stack
A building sewer is the main pipe conveying sewage and wastewater from a DWV system to a point of disposal, or termination.
The beginning of a building sewer is typically where a cleanout is installed with its connection to the building drain.
Most codes dictate that the cleanout cannot be less than 2'-6" or more than 10'-0" from the outside of a building.
The building drain is the lowest horizontal portion of a drainage system and receives discharge from waste stacks and horizontal branches.
Many codes state that it must extend at least 2'-6"and a maximum of 10'0" from the exterior of the building.
The waste stack is the main vertical pipe that conveys wastewater only.
It begins with its connection to the building drain and terminates with its connection to the stack vent and
It receives discharge from all horizontal branches and must have a cleanout at its base.
The vent for the waste stack is known as the stack vent and begins at the highest branch connection to the waste stack.
It is a dry piping system.
It typically extends through the roof, but can connect with the vent stack prior to terminating to open air.
The vent stack is sized based on numerous factors including the total discharge load of a system and the length it travels.
A cleanout is typically required by code to be installed at its base.
The vent stack can transition horizontally without requiring a relief vent.
Like all horizontal vents, it must have adequate slope to eliminate moisture from settling and obstructing its airway.
All codes dictate that the base of every stack and the transition from a building drain and building sewer must have a cleanout installed.
Minor Segments of a DWV system
The minor segments of a DWV system
BV: Branch Vent
CV: Circuit Vent
FB: Fixture Branch
FD: Fixture Drain
HB: Horizontal Branch
IV: Individual Vent
LV: Loop Vent
RV: Relief Vent
Wet venting is a piping arrangement that uses a single vent for more than one fixture.
The vent is also used as a drain.
The wet vented portion of the drain must be sized using a chart in a codebook relating to the actual fixtures and their dfu values.
All horizontal drains must have adequate slope.
A bathroom having only a toilet and a sink is known as a half bathroom.
A full bath has a toilet, lavatory, and bathtub and/or shower.
An air admittance valve is commonly installed below the kitchen sink to minimize labor costs.
Most codes dictate that a joist cannot be drilled in the top and bottom 2".
Many codes do not allow large diameter holes in the middle one-third of the joist span.
A building drain is the lowest horizontal portion of a DWV system.
It routes drainage discharge from all other drains to the building sewer.
Most codes dictate that at least one vent in a system must be a minimum of 3" in size throughout the entire length of that vent.
The 3" vent can be a continuation of a 3" or larger drain and, as with any dry vent, it must remain connected to the drainage system in the vertical position until it is at least 6" above the flood level rim of the highest fixture it serves.
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