2.3.2. What are the consequences of urbanization in two global cities? PRINTED
Terms in this set (32)
High income country
Countries with a GNI per capita of $11 456 or more
Low income country
Countries with a GNI per capita of $1045 or less
Things that attract people to a place
Things that make someone want to leave a place
Forms of employment that are not officially recognised, for example money earned from irregular jobs or from working for yourself on the streets.
Located in Northern India.
It is India's largest city with a 21.04 million population.
It is a city located in a NIC, newly Industrialised country
Population change in mumbai?
-The percentage population change from 1971 to 1981 was 38%
-Percentage population change 2001 to 2011 was 4.7%
Reasons for growth in mumbai?
-Natural population change
-The city's connections
Natural population change in Mumbai?
-Fertility rate of women in Mumbai in 1974 was 4
-Reduced to 1.8 in 2013
-Natural change would have contributed to growth of mumbai in 1970s and 80s but less now.
Migration in Mumbai?
-Majority of migration into Mumbai is internal migration
52% of migrants in Mumbai are from rural areas of india , urbanisation
-There are push and pull factors that result in urbanisation and counter-urbanisation into mumbai.
Pull factors for mumbia?
-Cheap rail travel
-Better training opportunities
-More services in education and healthcare
Push factors for areas of countryside surrounding mumbai?
No high paying skilled jobs
Connections of mumbai to wider city regions?
-Financial capital of india as its home to India's stock exchange
-It is home to large MNCs (multinational corporation) such as tata steel and major bollywood film industries.
-Also has an international airport and the major port of Nhava sheva
Historic/ recent population change in mumbai?
-Growth in mumbai largely historic
-City is still growing but not as rapidly as it was between 1971 and 1991
Way of life in mumbai?
-It is a city of contrasts and as such it has a varied social and cultural pattern.
-The social contrast is between rich and poor people.
-Mumbai's way of life is much more influenced by social aspects
-The emerging educated middle classes have expensive properties whilst the majority of people in Mumbai are living in slums in extreme poverty and work in informal economy.
Current urban challenges in mumbai?
-Reducing poverty and deprivation
poverty and deprivation in mumbai?
-Large proportion of people living in slums
-Mumbai has millions of people who are stuck in the cycle of deprivation
Housing in Mumbai?
-Majority of people in Mumbai live in slums, on the streets or in chawls (old multi story buildings with very basic shared facilities).
-These dwelling suffer from overcrowding and are at risk of collapse, fire or flooding
Solutions for these problems in Mumbai?
Self-help projects which involve giving residents help to improve their own living conditions for example connecting to mains water
Wholesale clearance by demolishing existing dwellings and building purpose built high rise buildings.
-Cardiff is in south-east wales and is wales' largest city and capital.
-Has a population of 346 000 and has a large sphere of influence with 1.4 million people living within 32km.
-Very well connected with a mainline bus and railway station in addition to m4 running through north of city.
-Cardiff is in a HIC, High income country.
growth in cardiff?
-Cardiff has been the fastest growing core economic city outside london in uk over the past decade.
-It is predicted to grow by a further 26% over the next twenty years
Reasons for growth in cardiff?
Natural population change
The cities connections
Natural population change in cardiff?
-Fertility rate was falling in UK until 2001-02 rising since this
-Also an increase in life expectancy
-This has lead to a naturally occuring increase in population.
Migration in cardiff?
-Cardiff there is more international migration
-Economic migrants migrated between 1800 to 1930s in cardiff for work.
-The majority of economic migrants have moved to Butetown in cardiff an area near the dockland for industrial jobs
Pull factors to cardiff?
Availability of jobs
Good tourist industry
Good research facilities
Push factors from surrounding area to Cardiff?
-Lack of jobs in the south welsh valleys due to closure of traditional industries
-Good transport links to cardiff meaning people can commute if they need to.
Historic/recent change in cardiff?
Rate of growth in cardiff has increased in recent years with an increase of 40 000 people between 2001 and 2011
Way of life in cardiff?
-Cardiff is a multicultural city because of this people across the city live very different lives.
-Cardiff's way of life is influenced by social and cultural aspects.
Causes of different lifestyles in cardiff?
Ethnic minorities in Cardiff?
-Economic migrants has led to 8% of cardiff population being from ethnic minorites
-Gives a great mix of food, culture and religion.
Income levels in cardiff?
-Range of incomes that people earn from working in cardiff are vast
-From minimum wage up to six figure wages.
Current urban challenges in cardiff?
-Reducing poverty and deprivation for example in Butetown
-Reducing traffic congestion for example the A470 road
-Regeneration of the CBD shop closures on Queen street.