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SSU6 Vocab The Cold War
Terms in this set (30)
an extremely powerful nation, especially one capable of influencing international events and the acts and policies of less powerful nations. The two superpowers during the Cold War were the United States and the Soviet Union.
conflict between the United States and Soviet Union following World War II that lasted for 45 years. (this was diplomatic tensions, not an actual conflict)
North Atlantic Treaty Organization, a military alliance that included Canada, the United States, and ten European nations. Formed in 1949.
a military alliance formed in response to NATO consisting of the Soviet Union and other Eastern European countries. Formed in 1955.
was one of the first major international crises of the Cold War. The Soviet Union blocked the Western Allies' railway, road, and canal access to the sectors of Berlin under allied control.
In response to the blockade, the U.S. and its allies decided to supply their sectors of the city of Berlin from the air.
a guarded concrete wall, 28 miles long, with minefields and controlled checkpoints, built across the city of Berlin by East Germany in 1961 and dismantled in 1989.
an act or policy of restricting the territorial growth or ideological influence of another, especially a hostile nation.
The idea that if one country fell to Communism, those around it would fall as well.
a competition between the United States and Soviet Union to develop more destructive weapons.
competition between two Cold War rivals, the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States (US), for supremacy in spaceflight capability.
the first man-made satellite to orbit the Earth (Russian).
a policy pursued by a nation in its dealings with other nations, designed to achieve national goals or objectives.
a term used by Winston Churchill that symbolized the ideological conflict and physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991.
the first "hot" conflict of the "cold" war. Began in 1950 when the Soviet-backed North Koreans invaded South Korea before meeting a counter-offensive by UN forces that were dominated by the United States.
Cuban Missile Crisis
1962 Confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union caused by Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba
a Cold War era proxy war fought between North Vietnam—supported by the Soviet Union, China and other communist allies—and the government of South Vietnam—supported by the United States and other anti-communist allies.
a war instigated by a major power that does not itself participate. Proxy wars were common in the Cold War, because the two nuclear-armed superpowers (the Soviet Union and the United States) did not wish to fight each other directly, since that would have run the risk of escalation to a nuclear war.
if countries rejected communism they got support from the U.S. Economic and military aid to free nations threatened by communism. Ex: Turkey and Greece got $400 million-an example of containment.
U.S. program of economic aid to European countries to help them rebuild after WWII. It was very successful but Russia saw it as a threat that the U.S. was rearming Germany-ex. of containment.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
A World War II hero and former supreme commander of NATO who became U.S. president in 1953. He expanded New Deal-era social welfare programs such as Social Security and passed the landmark Federal Highway Act to improve national transportation. He emphasized he would use nuclear weapons and the threat of massive retaliation against the Soviet Union in order to deter the USSR from spreading Communism abroad.
Ho Chi Minh
He helped found the Indochinese Communist Party in 1930 and the League for the Independence of Vietnam, or Viet Minh, in 1941. At World War II's end, Viet Minh forces seized the northern Vietnamese city of Hanoi and declared a Democratic State of Vietnam (or North Vietnam) with him as president.
Founder of communism in China after WWII
John F. Kennedy
He was elected in 1960 and felt that his hands were tied by Eisenhower's policy of "massive retaliation" so he and members of his foreign policy staff devised the tactic of "flexible response" to contain Communism. He sent "military advisors" to support Ngo Dinh Diem's corrupt regime in South Vietnam and formed the Alliance for Progress to fight poverty and Communism in Latin America. He also backed the disastrous Bay of Pigs invasion, which ultimately led to the Cuban missile crisis.
The head of the Soviet Communist Party and leader of the USSR from 1958 until the early 1960s. Initially, many Americans hoped his rise to power would lead to a reduction in Cold War tensions. The U-2 incident and Cuban missile crisis, however, ended what little peaceful relationship existed between the two nations. Party leaders were upset with him for having backed down from the Cuban missile crisis and removed him from power in 1964.
Five-star American general who commanded the Allied forces in the Pacific during World War II. After the war, he led the American occupation in Japan, helped establish a democratic government there, and in large part rewrote the country's new constitution outlawing militarism. He later commanded United Nations forces in Korea. President Harry S Truman later rejected his request to bomb North Korea and China with nuclear weapons. His public criticism of the president's decision prompted Truman to remove him from command in 1951.
Republican senator from Wisconsin who capitalized on Cold War fears of Communism in the early 1950s by accusing hundreds of government employees of being Communists and Soviet agents. Although he failed to offer much concrete evidence to prove these claims, many Americans fully supported him.
Richard M. Nixon
Republican congressman from California who rose to national fame as a prominent member of the House Un-American Activities Committee in the late 1940s when he successfully prosecuted Alger Hiss for being a Communist. He later served as vice president under Dwight D. Eisenhower. He lost his own bid for the presidency against John F. Kennedy in 1960 but defeated his Democratic opponent eight years later and became president in 1969.
Russian President from 1984-1991. He initiated a policy of Glasnost and Perestroika. These policies of reform and openness led to a decline in Cold War tensions, the fall of the Berlin wall and the ending of Communist party rule in the Soviet Union. He negotiated with Reagan to reduce nuclear weapons, and unlike his predecessors, allowed Eastern European countries to leave the Warsaw Pact and become independent democracies.
US President (1980 - 1988) He pursued an aggressive anti-Communist foreign policy. However, in his second term, he was involved in negotiations, which led to arms reductions.
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