64 terms

World History: Russia, Industrialization, Scramble for Africa, ISMS

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Why did Russia consider itself the "third Rome?"
-borrowed from Roman and Byzantine empires
+Orthodox Christianity
+tsar: from "caesar"
-wanted to show that it was emerging as influential power
What society had kept Russia isolated from other societies' developments at the beginning of the early modern era?
Mongols (occupied/dominated Russia until partway through era)
What family did Catherine the Great marry into?
Romanovs
What form of government did Catherine embrace?
Enlightened despot
What culture did Catherine and Peter share an interest in?
western (Western Europe)
What were the Enlightened ideas that Catherine embraced?
-wanted to improve the lives of her people
-religious tolerances
-freedoms of speech
-embraced the ARTS and EDUCATION
What qualified Catherine as an Enlightened despot?
-more trade and growth
-reformed Russia's legal system (equal law system)
-promoted arts and science
Why was Catherine opposed to revolutionary ideas created by the French Revolution?
worried that the idea would spread to Russia and jeopardize her power
What is selective westernation?
borrowing some ideas from Western Europe
How is St. Basil's an example of selective westernization?
distinct "onion domes" are different from western European architecture
Name the two largest natural resources during the British industrial revolution.
coal and iron
Where the industrial revolution spread to between 1850-1914?
throughout Western Europe,
USA, Russia, Japan
What are two inventions related to water made life easier in the first phases of the revolution?
Water mill, canal
What are three steam powered technologies that arose during the industrial revolution?
Steam powered tractor
Steam powered ships
Steam powered locomotive (railroad)
How did the railroad impact society at this time?
Could move people, raw materials, and goods more cheaply and in a fraction of the time.
It provided jobs throughout the nation.
How did Russia become one of the great land empires?
-Peter The Great initiated Westernization
-Strong mining industry for munitions and shipbuilding facilities
-The capital became St. Petersburg to provide a "window to the west"
-Peter attempted to replicate many aspects of French absolution
How did Peter try to make Russia respectable in western eyes?
Peter imported European artists, architects and replaced Russian customs with European customs. Also encouraged people to learn French and send kids to school in Europe.
How did new agricultural methods influence the industrial revolution?
-Fewer farmers so the unemployed people became the factory workers
-Population increase
What was the cottage industry?
During the winter farmers would use hand looms and cotton to weave cloth, preceded industrialization
What are some of the inventions that helped textiles increase?
-Flying shuttle: weave quicker
-Spinning jenny: multiple threads weaved together
-Water powered loom
During the early modern era, what were the main goals of Russian tsars?
-Territorial expansion, consolidation or strengthening of power of the tsar
What did the tsars give to the nobility in exchange for their loyalty?
Land and peasants
What were the peasants reduced to in Russia, and how was this different than the rest of Europe?
-Peasants reduced to serfs
-Unusual for society to enslave its own people
What were boyars, and what happened if they threatened the power?
Russian nobles; they were killed or exiled
How did Ivan the terrible establish a new Russian foundation?
-Reformed army
-Threatened enemies to government
-Put secret police in place
What did the Romanov Dynasty do during their 300 year rule?
-Expanded Russia's borders significantly
-Continued to consolidate power for the tsar
-Sent enemies to Siberia
What was the impact of telegraph lines?
easier communication
What challenges resulted directly from the factory system during the first industrial revolution?
rigid schedule, extremely long work day, dangerous conditions, no workers rights
Who were Luddites?
Artisans and craftspeople who protested the introduction of job threatening machines
What is one social impact of Industrialization?
Fewer families were working together
What were the new social classes created by the industrial revolution?
-Bourgeoisie (upper class) aka "the haves"
-Proletariat (working class) aka "the have nots"
Why did they use children for labor?
-Children were small enough to fit in tiny places
-Many of them were orphans so no one bothered to help
-Could pay them significantly less
What were the main impacts of child labor?
Some children were injured from the working conditions and/or died from overworking
First or second industrialization: introduction of child labor
first industrialization
First or second industrialization: steel
second industrialization
First or second industrialization: chemicals
second industrialization
First or second industrialization: electricity
second industrialization
First or second industrialization: canals
first industrialization
First or second industrialization: white-collar jobs for women
second industrialization
First or second industrialization: compulsory education, unions, and workers compensation
second industrialization
First or second industrialization: introduction of textile factories
first industrialization
First or second industrialization: vacations for the middle class
second industrialization
First or second industrialization: sewage systems in urban areas
first industrialization
First or second industrialization: constuction of first railroads
first industrialization
First or second industrialization: water frame
first industrialization
What was the "Scramble for Africa?"
colonization of Africa by European powers; largely motivated by competition with each other
imperialism
the need for markets and resources led to this practice of industrialized powers taking over other lands
bourgeoisie
upper-middle class; this new class arose because of the changes brought by the industrial revolution
proletariat
working class: factory workers; Marx believed they were oppressed and wanted them to rise up against the factory owners
Social Darwinism
racist concept used to justify conquest of territory
King Leopold
personally controlled the Congo for approximately 30 years
rubber
most valuable resource acquired from the Congo during the industrial age
quotas
native Africans' hands were cut off if these weren't met
romanticism
a pro-tradition "ism" led by artists and writers
liberalism
"ism" most in favor of the revolutions
feminism
sister "ism" to liberalism, primary platform was female suffrage
communism
proletariat workers supported this "ism," which envisioned a classless society
nationalism
"ism" that promotes patriotism and loyalty to country; also used to justify imperialism
realism
this "ism" directly challenged romanticism as naive; produced art/literature that highlighted some of the challenges of industrialization
Australia
the first British settlers to this colony were convicts
penal colony
a settlement outside of a country where a country sends its prisoners
steamships, railroads, medical advances, industrial weapons
all allowed industrial countries to dominate other societies in the industrial era
hospitals, schools
infrastructure such as these were introduced to colonies such as the Congo by parent countries in the industrial era, part of Social Darwinism justification of conquest
Belgium
King Leopold ruled this European country