Upgrade to remove ads
SGU Immunology- Post Midterm
Terms in this set (36)
Interpretation of immunodiagnostic tests depends on ________
what is being detected in the test
**ie: antibody or antigen
In immunodiagnostics, what does the presence of an antibody indicate?
exposure to an agent
**does NOT necessarily mean the animal is currently infected
In immunodiagnostics, what does the presence of an antigen indicate?
the animal is infected with the agent
**may or may not have a disease due to the agent
In order to be sure of the presence of disease, what must be present in addition to the presence of an Ag?
the animal must be showing clinical signs compatible with the disease of interest
What does a serology measure?
it is a measurement of Ag-Ab interactions
What is the mechanism of serological assays?
detection of an unknown Ab in body fluids by using a known Ag (or vice versa)
What is Ab detection good for?
confirms results or other tests
safe option for checking for infection b/c serum does not contain infectious agent
What factors affect Ag-Ab interactions?
forces of attraction
concentration of Ag and Ab
What is titration?
serum dilutions used to measure the amount of Ab in the serum
What is a titer?
how we quantify amount of Ab in titration
--> reciprocal of the highest dilution of serum that gives a rxn to the Ag
What does a 1:8 dilution contain?
What are some methods of detection of Ab in dilutions?
precipitation: visualize precipitate
agglutination: visualize aggregates
ELISA: visualize color change
In an ELISA plate, a color change means what?
Ab was detected
Between a titer of 1:4 and a titer of 1:512, which has higher Ab concentration in the serum?
1:512 b/c Ab is present in higher dilution
How does a primary binding test work?
directly measures binding of Ag to Ab. Either Ag or Ab needs to be labels with something that can be detected
What are some examples of labels for primary binding tests?
fluorescent dyes, enzymes, radioisotope
What does secondary binding test measure?
results of Ag-Ab interactions in vitro
What are the pros and cons of the secondary binding tests?
pro: easier to perform
con: less sensitive than primary binding test
What does serum contain?
***does NOT contain any cells or clotting factors
What is the most efficient complement for hemolytic tests?
guinea pig serum
What are some reagents used in immunodiagnostic tests?
complement, polyclonal Ab, monoclonal Ab, anti-globulins, anti-serum
What is a polyclonal Ab?
multiple B cell clones make Ab to different epitopes of an Ag
What is a monoclonal Ab?
Ab produced from a single B cell clone
What are anti-globulins?
Ab against Ab
Ex: goat anti-human globulin
What is anti-serum?
blood serum containing Ab against specific Ag
***may be one or more Ag
What are some examples of anti-serum?
snake venom anti-serum
What is a must for immunodiagnostic testing?
must always run a known positive and a known negative control each time a test is done
What are the types of immunofluorescence assays?
direct and indirect fluorescent Ab tests
What are the types of immnoenzyme assays?
ELISA, western blot, immunohistochemistry
What are the categories of primary binding tests?
immunofluorescence assays and immunoenzyme assays
What are the secondary binding tests?
precipitations test: radial immunodiffusion
agglutination tests: viral hemagglutination tests
complement fixation tests
______ is a common fluorochrome used to label Ab in IFA
A direct FA test detects _____
An indirect FA test detects ____
How is a direct FA test performed?
fix unknown Ag to slide and apply the specific Ab-FITC conjugate
If the Ab-FITC binds, we know the Ag is present
How is an indirect FA test performed?
fix a known Ag to slide and add serum with unknown Ab to slide. Apply specific anti-species Ig-FITC conjugate
*If anti-species Ig-FITC binds, we know the Ab is present on the Ag
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
SGU Immunology Final - Immunodiagnostic Tests
SGU: Immunology Set 1
SGU Immunology- Midterm Material
SGU Immunology: Final Exam Set 2
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Serology Final Exam Practice Questions
Diagnostic Immunology: Applications of Immune Resp…
Immunology - Immunodiagnostics
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
SGU LAS: Final Set 3
SGU LAS: Final Set 2
SGU LAS: Final Set 1
SGU DI: Final Set 2